ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Turbo Jet Engines

Updated on December 2, 2011

Types of Airplane Engines

The world of flying objects is extremely vast and the machines that power these objects are extremely complex. The experts have thus segregated engines into 3 main categories. They are, the Turbo Jet Engine, the Turbo Propeller Engine, and the Ram Jet Engine. The Turbo Jet and the Turbo Propeller engines are quite similar except the fact that Turbo Propeller has a propeller attached to the Mechanical Turbines which is responsible for 90% of the thrust provided by the engine. The rest 10% is from the expansion of the gases in the combustion chamber flowing out through the exhaust nozzle.

The Ram Jet engine is a different class of engine that cannot be operated at low speeds since it has no moving parts. It is one of the easiest engines to build and can be mass produced. These engines can be only operated at speeds above Mach 1.5 and is extremely inefficient at lower speeds. A proper functioning of the other two engines will be explained by me in another hub.

Following is the proper structural content of the Turbo Jet Engine with its function. Hope you guys will like it. I have also tried to link a video that explains the working graphically.

Structural Integration of the Turbo Jet Engine

The Turbo Jet engine is a wide bodied engine made of titanium alloys for the strength and resistance to extreme temperatures. The body of the engine is designed in such a way that during flight, the air flow inside the engine allows natural cooling of the engine and reduces the energy lost to combat lubrication problems. The body of the engine is casted using sand moulds with great precision. A single engine of an airplane costs $7-$8 million to build from start to finish.

A diagram showing the natural cooling of the engine

Airbreathing Engine (Turbo Jet)

This is one of the most common type of air breathing engines.It consists of a diffuser, a mechanical compressor, a combustion chamber, mechanical turbine and an exhaust nozzle.

These types of engines are mainly used in commercial and cargo aircraft and are less preferred for use in fighter jets as these operate at far lesser speeds and generate huge amount of torque.

The Internal Structure

The Diffuser : The Diffuser is a low pressure circular vent that is responsible for converting the kinetic energy of the atmospheric air into a static pressure rise. The pressure of the atmospheric air is high thus this air flows into the vent where it gets reduced in volume thus increasing its pressure. This intake air is then fed to the compressor.

The Compressor : The compressor found in Turbo Jet engines are usually rotary compressors. The rotary compressors are compressors that generate high volume of air at a low pressure thus having a lower pressure ratio compared to the reciprocating compressors.

The air intake from the diffuser is fed to the inlet of the rotary axial or centrifugal compressor where the air gets compressed in various stages and reaches a high pressure. This high pressure is reached due to the various stages of the compressor adding to the pressure at each stage.

The compressor outlet is the inlet to the air-fuel feed nozzle.

The Air-Fuel feed nozzle : The air-fuel feed nozzle mixes the compressed air with the jet fuel. The fuel is mixed with a specific air-fuel ratio. This injector nozzle injects fuel at a constant rate in the combustion chamber where it is burned to form high pressure exhaust.

The Combustion Chamber : This is a chamber where the air-fuel mixture is burned with the help of flame stabiizers. The flame stabilizers keep a constant flame ignited in the combustion chamber to continuously burn the fuel and also ensure that the flame does not go out. The chamber consists of two fuel injector nozzles and the flame stabilizer.

The exhaust created in the combustion chamber is passed to the Mechanical Turbine.

The Mechanical Turbine : The mechanical turbine consists of a rotary element having fan blades. The high pressure exhaust from the combustion chamber strikes the fans of the turbine causing it to rotate. This striking causes the exhaust to expand and lose its pressure.

The turbine is responsible for driving the axial compressor. the turbine rotation is connected to the rotor of the compressor with reduction gear. This causes the compressor to rotate.

The exhaust nozzle from the turbine blades is further passed to the exhaust nozzle.

The Exhaust Nozzle : The exhaust nozzle further expands the turbine blade exhaust and is responsible for the thrust of the airplane. The exhaust nozzle produce enough thrust to drive the plane forward. The exhaust leaves the nozzle with a velocity larger than the flight velocity.

Working of the Turbo Jet Engine

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Turbo Jet Engines

The turbo jet engine is a continuous flow engine hence a compressor and a turbine is used to provide additional pressure rise which is not obtained in the Ram Jet Engines.

  • The specific weight of the jet propulsion engine is 1/4 to 1/2 of the reciprocating engine.
  • There are no reciprocating parts and therefore the engine is free from unbalanced forces.
  • The jet propulsion engine has a small frontal area and a better aerodynamic shape.
  • The speeds od the jet engine is not limited by the propeller hence high speeds can be obtained.
  • The continuous combustion gives continuous thrust.

The Engine though has some disadvantages like it is quite noisy in operation and at low pressures, the thermal efficiency is lower hence the fuel consumption is 2-3 times of that of the reciprocating engines.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image


      7 years ago

      It's very nice...

    • anuch60 profile image

      Jayant Row 

      7 years ago from Vasai East

      Excellent article Akshay, Keep it up. Look forward to more articles from you.

    • profile image

      Sudarshan Shetty 

      7 years ago

      Hey nice one matey!! Helped me complete a project on this topic...thanks again!!


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)