ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Turkeys, migrating birds, and migrating butterflies

Updated on March 25, 2015
Turkey, picture taken in Belgium.
Turkey, picture taken in Belgium. | Source

Well, Thanksgiving is over. Hope you all had a good THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY! Is there still any leftover turkey?

I read an interesting fact about turkeys in the Saturday Evening Post. Apparently, turkeys have a weak heart, and nearly a million of them die because of this every year on turkey farms in this country (November-December 2014 issue p 31). I decided to look into this briefly and searched for ‘Turkey health problems” on the Internet. I didn’t find the exact statement about weak turkey heart – I didn’t look long or hard; maybe some of you will find it. But I did come across a handout on turkey care at They say there that commercial turkeys are fed on a high-fat diet often supplemented by antibiotics, and that this leads to health problems and early death. It would be reasonable to assume that heart problems may be the result of a high-fat diet and of an enormous body (the result of overfeeding), and that these could lead to early death.

Chimney swift

Aside from nesting, a common swift will spend its entire life in the air. Chimney Swift. Source: Chester A. Reed, ''The Bird Book'', 1915. Received from {{PD-US}} Category:Chaetura pelagica
Aside from nesting, a common swift will spend its entire life in the air. Chimney Swift. Source: Chester A. Reed, ''The Bird Book'', 1915. Received from {{PD-US}} Category:Chaetura pelagica | Source

I thought I would also search for “interesting facts about animals” in the hope of finding some detail about the weak heart of turkeys. I had 60,200,000 results. I came upon a great many sites that list and show animals, mainly furry or feathered, with some interesting facts about them (though I did not find the turkey in a short search). I followed the hits on the first page; the sites are somewhat repetitive, so you don’t have to look through all 60 million. I don’t want to spoil the fun in case you decide to look these up, but:

Did you know that a group of flamingos is called flamboyance?

Did you know that ‘aside from when nesting, a common swift will spend its entire life in the air’?

Swainson’s thrush.

| Source

Bird migration.

Speaking of swifts: have you ever thought about the wonders of bird migration? There are, of course many sites that provide information about bird migration.

How do they manage these long flights? How do they know which direction in which to fly, and where to go? According to a short description in the November 2014 issue of the Scientific American (p 22), the flight path for a bird is ‘stored at least partially in its genes’. An interesting experiment was performed with hybrid birds (thrushes) that had one parent taking a route close to the west coast of North America towards Mexico, and another parent, that flew through the east-central part of the continent. The flight of the hybrids was followed with GPS trackers. The hybrids either took intermediate routes, or followed one parent when flying away, and the other one when flying back. (Some chose to fly according to one parent only.) There are plenty of questions to ask about this study, which is just the latest in the quest to understand bird migration, and how these traits could have evolved. But as the article says, the birds must have an innate flight plan. And it shows one way their flight plan can change.

Monarch butterfly

A beautiful monarch butterfly bears her transparent wings letting the wonderful Sunday sunlight flow through.
A beautiful monarch butterfly bears her transparent wings letting the wonderful Sunday sunlight flow through. | Source

Butterfly migration

Talking about migration, Monarch butterflies from North America migrate to the mountains of Mexico. Monarchs that live in tropical areas, perhaps not surprisingly, do not systematically migrate. Monarchs now also live all over the globe, and they don’t cover long distances like the ones from the Northern United States. Now, in an effort to understand about genetic differences between migrating and non-migrating butterflies, a group of scientists undertook a remarkably extensive DNA sequencing study of monarchs. They examined single building block differences (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the total genetic material (genomes) of 89 butterflies. (Another 12 individuals were analyzed to learn about the coloration of Monarchs, making the total number of individuals sequenced 101!)

Collagen triple helix

Collagen provides support to structures in various tissues, including muscles.
Collagen provides support to structures in various tissues, including muscles. | Source

The results from comparing butterflies from all over the world show that the North American monarchs are the ancestors of the non-migrating ones. This is the opposite of what is believed about birds. According to the accepted theory, the ancestors of migrating birds are the tropical non-migrating species.

The above studies also highlighted several genes that were associated with migratory behavior. Among these were genes involved in the development of morphological features and of the nervous system. The strongest link with migration was found for a gene coding for collagen. Collagen is the main component of connective tissues. It has a crucial role in forming fibrous tissues, and surrounding muscle fibers. This latter function is the one that, when diversity is found in the collagen gene product, is likely to influence the ability for long-range migration, as the fine structure of muscle may define what exertion the monarchs are capable of.


Turkey care from,d.dGY

Which direction home? Some migratory birds get conflicting instructions from Mom and Dad. Goldman, Jason J, 2014 Scientific American 311 No 5 p 22

Of Monarchs and Migration Richard H. Ffrench-Constant Nature (16 October 2014) 514, 314–315

Reporting on: The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration. Shuai Zhan, Wei Zhang,Kristjan Niitepõld, Jeremy Hsu, Juan Fernández Haeger, Myron P. Zalucki, Sonia Altizer, Jacobus C. de Roode, Steven M. Reppert & Marcus R. Kronforst Nature (16 October 2014) 514, 317–321


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Eva Hard profile imageAUTHOR

      PE Hardwicke 

      3 years ago from Midwest USA

      Thanks, let me know if you do remember.

      There is no end to interesting stories. But it takes me very long to guess what other people may find interesting, do the background searches, and write the article. I appreciate all your helpful hints on writing.

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 

      4 years ago from Olympia, WA

      There is an online site that lets you track the migration of the Monarch butterflies and other migratory insects and's really pretty cool. I used it in the science classes I taught....I wish I could remember the name of it so you could check it out. Anyway, I'm babbling....very interesting and cool article.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)