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U.S. Marine Corps Facts and History: June 22nd
U.S. Marine Corps Mascot
The English Bulldog has been the unofficial mascot of the U.S. Marine Corps since 1918. During the World War I Battle of Belleau Wood, German soldiers called Marines "teufel-hunden" which translates into "devil dog". Teufel-hunden were vicious, wild creatures from Bavarian folklore. Shortly thereafter, the Marine Corps began using ferocious-looking English Bulldogs on recruiting posters. These bulldogs became adopted, unofficially, as the Corps' mascot.
Commencing in 1922, the Marine Corps has had actual English Bulldogs in service. Like their human counterparts, these canine Marines are eligible for awards and promotions. Currently, Corporal Chesty XIV is serving at the Marine Barrack Washington, D.C.
1800 - Manpower
The Marine Corps' strength was 38 officers and 475 enlisted.
At the time, the Marine Band known as "The President's Own" regularly made appearances at church services throughout the Capitol.
1898 - Spanish-American War
The Marine Detachment from the USS Charleston (C-2) accompanied by some crew members conduct a landing in Guam and lay claim to the island for the United States.
Guam, along with the Philippines and Puerto Rico, were ceded to the United States by Spain as part of the Treaty of Paris.
Located in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, Guam is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands. The 210 square mile island is populated by 160,000 Guamanian. A U.S. Territory, its capital city is Hagatna.
Guam was discovered by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 and claimed by Spain in 1565, who began colonization during 1668. The United States took control of Guam in 1898 following the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American War. On 8 December 1941, Guam was invaded and seized by Japanese forces. The island returned to U.S. control during July 1944 following the U.S. Marines victory in the Battle of Guam. In January 1972, the last World War II Japanese soldier surrendered in Guam.
Guam is an important hub for U.S. military forces in the Pacific Ocean. Anderson Air Force Base remains to be a significant factor in U.S. Air Force strategic missions in the region. Additionally, Guam hosts a U.S. Coast Guard Station, a U.S. Naval Base and a Marine Barracks. The Department of the Navy is planning to bolster both the Marine and Navy capabilities and presence in Guam in the next several years.
1917 - Marine Corps Bases
The Marine Corps assumed control of the Port Royal Naval Station and re-designates it as Marine Barracks, Parris Island. The site would later be renamed as Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina (MCRD, PISC).
The Corps' manpower at the time was 775 offices and 27,000 enlisted.
1941 - World War II
The 1st Marine Brigade begins it voyage from the United States to Iceland. The brigade is composed of the 6th Marine Regiment, the 5th Defense Battalion and the 2nd Battalion, 10th Marine Regiment. The brigade arrived in Iceland on July 7th and would remain there until relieved by U.S. Army units during March, 1942.
The deployment was a result of President Roosevelt's decision to commit U.S. forces to the defense of Iceland.
1944 - World War II
After a day of consolidating gained positions, the V Amphibious Corps resumes its advance during the Battle of Saipan. The 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions went on the offensive while the Army's 27th Infantry Division served as the corps' reserve.
Saipan's Aslito Airfield became operational allowing a fighter squadron from U.S. Army Air Corps to land. The airfield was captured 4 days earlier by elements of the 27th Infantry Division and subsequently repaired by U.S. Marine engineers and U.S. Navy Seabees.
1954 - Official Seal of the Marine Corps
1972 - Vietnam Conflict
Sea-based Marine attack helicopters participate in maritime interdiction operations along the North Vietnamese coast. The objective is to stop the waterborne supply of North Vietnamese Army forces who are in the process of capturing the northern provinces of South Vietnam. Code named Operation MARHUK, it was the combat debut for the Marine Corps' new AH-1J Sea Cobra helicopters.