# Uncertainty in Theories

Updated on January 29, 2018

I am a student and a Physics Enthusiast who is trying to understand the Cosmos as it is.

## Odds are we're living in a Simulation.

God doesn’t play dice or does he? If he’s playing with dice then, it would be a subtle art to contemplate the Cosmos while wandering deep into it. It is because he can change his laws whenever he wants to. Perhaps, after the dice showed up, gravity becomes repulsive or all the electrons start losing their energy while revolving around the nucleus and boom! all the creation devastated in a stint and you may not be able to read the next sentence. But, if you’re reading this then, it means the laws haven’t changed yet.

Imagine like this, you are observing an unknown game and trying to comprehend this game, move after the move you’ve started getting the rules of the game and eventually, you’re liable to prognosticate the next move by analyzing the players' move. But, suddenly, the game setter reverses the order of the game then, it would become an awful condition for you as your prophecy might become a fatuous logic. One of my friends told me the verbatim words of Elon Musk – “It’s the one-billionth possibility that we’re NOT the simulation”. Although this is a tacit sentence, which might be spurious but what, if it’s a simulation then, who knows who’s controlling this simulation? If it’s not then, we better venture to find the other living beings, like us, on the exoplanets to save this planet or humanity. The facts that we’re alone or not are both equally terrifying. If you ever get demotivated, just remember what Elon Musk said, "It's a SIMULATION".

## String Theory

String theory or M-theory talks about the parallel universes and their existence in the 11-dimensional space. Nature forbids us to see these anonymous dimensions yet we can still deliberate about the existence of these higher dimensions because of the perturbations in the traversing nature of the Gravitational waves. Even the slightest deviation in their path outlines the proof of the higher dimensions, as predicted by the physicists. But, there’s also a possibility that the explorers of the Cosmos haven’t found some laws which delineate the behavior of these waves. So, the theory, which talks about the existence of higher dimensions by observing the perturbations of gravitational waves, is kind of uncertain because we are unsure of the hidden laws as well as of the hidden dimensions. Basically, String theory based on the fact that the dimensions relative to you may be different from that of some other creature. Let's see how.

Imagine this world, our spherical earth as a flat plate, and we are two-dimensional human beings; incapable of seeing upwards and downwards, having only four ways to see the space - forward, backward, right and left. Now a three-dimensional alien comes, wanders and steps into our world then, what would we see? Would it be possible for the 2-D beings to see its whole body? I’m afraid that we can see its footprint only, as nature forbids us to see upwards and have a wide perspective, for us that footprint came out of nowhere but the cause, which creates it, is still there. Just like we can’t explain the expansion of the universe or the perturbation in gravitational waves, the cause is still right here, we need to find the perfect cause of these effects. (There’s a Dark energy out there which explains the expansion but is hidden from our vision, also scientists are uncertain about its existence and can’t delineate how does it truly work)

## Dimensions are Relative

Virtually saying, a small creature (say, an insect) has a different perspective. For that creature, this world may have only two dimensions as its perception is clearly different from us. It perceives the world at a new and undefinable level that it's vague to explain. An eagle, for example, has a wider range of vision than us, an ostrich has its two eyes on either side of its face so, clearly, its perception is wider than normal human beings. An insect, on the other hand, has a trivial vision which confines its perception and imagination. Not only the vision but the flow of time is different for different creatures, despite the fact that all are on the same planet. A recent study shows that a bee can act faster than it supposed to be because the speed of time relative to a bee (or an insect) is slower than that of us. In simple words, it can see the motion, like a slow-motion movie, more clearly than us and can act as according to its defense.

## Expansion Theory

Stephen Hawking once said, “Imagination has no boundaries”. Truly said, the human mind has the capability to think of anything like it has no boundaries, and so has the universe. The expanding universe has limitless boundaries. Its boundaries are accelerating outwardly. How did the cosmologists predict that? Well, in 1929, a young cosmologist, Edwin Hubble, saw a redshift in the space and as according to Doppler Effect, if something is going far away from us then, its wavelength, when it reaches an observer, is more than that of when it's motionless with respect to us. So, an increase in wavelength indicates that the receiving light is redder and hence, a redshift means that the object is going away from us. A blueshift appears when an object is approaching us. Clearly, Hubble saw blue shifts too, but the number of redshifts was more than that of blueshifts. He, then, engendered the theory of “Expanding Universe”. As the universe is expanding then, hypothetically, if we reverse the direction of the flow of the time thenceforth one might think that the universe would start contracting to a point. So, an expanding universe has some beginning. Hubble’s theory led to many theories which speak about the beginning of our Universe in which only six theories are acceptable including the ‘Big Bang’ theory. But what about before the ‘Big Bang’? When did it happen? How did the scientists estimate that?

## Occurrence of Big Bang

First things first, nothing can exceed the speed of light. Scientists explored for the oldest and coldest star, called ‘White Dwarf Star’, estimating that that star started its journey with our universe and has a life equal to our universe. They found a star which is 13.8 billion light years far away from this blue planet which means the light took 13.8 billion years to reach us and hence, if that light, or star, formed at the time of big bang then, it’s for sure that the age of our universe is 13.8 billion years. But, what about the star whose light takes more than 13.8 billion years to reach us or hasn't reached us yet because of the perturbation due to the gravitational lensing? Recently, ‘Seeker’ uploaded a video on YouTube explaining the beginning of the universe that it might be a possibility that two universes banged to make ours. So, we are uncertain about 'what’s true?' or 'what will remain true?', it’s for sure that the age of our universe is no less than 13.8 billion years. We've discovered more about the cosmos in the last century than in all the previous history of mankind. Many concepts were changed in the 20th Century such as - Before 1929, universe was supposed to be static and unchangeable but Hubble changed the theory from the 'Static Universe' to the 'Dynamic Universe', Einstein changed the concept of 'Relativity' and 'Time' as he introduced "Time" as a physical dimension, and also he did change the definition of 'Gravity'. But how did he do that? Well, I've embedded a video for you for better visualization.

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