ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Is Violent Behavior in Adult Males (and Adult Females) Caused by Genes, Environment, or Both?

Updated on July 15, 2017

Research Study: Nature (Genes) or Nurture (Environmet) Cause a Violent Behavior Personality

Research studies of genes and genotypes have been conducted to find out if an individual’s violent behavior is a function of nature or nurture. Research has found that the s/s genotype does correlate with violent offenses and violent crimes. Also, negative childhood environments have shown to predispose people toward violent behavior in later life. To conduct one research study, authorities sent 184 Caucasian, male, adult volunteers to the Institute of Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Saarland to be evaluated for legal responsibility or risk assessment. First, the men were told the scope and aim of the study that was being conducted. The men had to give their written consent before participating in this study. They were given a semi-structured interview that was conducted by well-trained psychiatrists. Next, the men were given a neurological exam. The Ethics Committee of the University of the Saarland and the University of Wurzburg gave its approval of this study (Reif, Rosler, Freitag, Schneider, Eujen, Kissling, Wenzler, Jacob, Retz-Junginger, Thome, Klaus-Peter & Retz, 2007). The genotyping was conducted by drawing blood samples and then extracting DNA using a standard method. Statistical analysis was then provided from the findings of this research study.

Researchers' Findings from the Study

The results of this study found that out of the 184 males, 72% of the men had a history of violent behavior. Older males were less likely to exhibit violent behavior. Those individuals who had a history of drug abuse showed to have a higher prevalence toward violent behavior. Personality disorders were more common among the men who had a history of violent behavior. Summing it all up from this study, results are conclusive that genetics (nature) do play a part in determining the likelihood for impulsive violent behavior. (Reif, Rosler, Freitag, Schneider, Eujen, Kissling, Wenzler, Jacob, Retz-Junginger, Thome & Klaus-Peter & Retz, 2007, p. 354-355)

“Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. An interaction effect between childhood environment and 5HTT genotype on violent behavior was found - in that high adversity during childhood impacted only the later-life violence if the shorter promoter alleles were present. (Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) 32, 2375-2383; doi: 10-1038/sj.npp.1301359; published online 7 March, 2007).” (Yang, Hujaie, Zhiquin, Hanqing, Haiying & Wei, 2013, p. 6).

Research studies have shown (both) nature and nurture to play an important role in the temperament of a person, such as violent behavior. Many scientific, reliable, and valid studies have been conducted that validate this to be true.

Causal Factors in the Development of Violent Behavior Personality Types in Adult Males (and Adult Females)

Most of the participants in this study had suffered from childhood emotional abuse, which mirrored the findings of other studies that showed experiences of emotional deprivation, exploitation, humiliation, and constant rejection during childhood which is common among violent offenders (Carli et al., 2013; Kolla et al., 2013). Although experiences of emotional abuse seem to be a recurring theme in the childhoods of offenders, the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse was also higher than it was for individuals who were studied in normal and clinical populations (Bifulco et al., 2014; Deblinger, McLeer, Atkins, Ralphe, & Foa, 1989; McFarlane, Groff, O’Brien, & Watson, 2003).” (Schimmenti, Di Carlo, Passanisi & Caretti, 2014, p. 5)

There are physical illnesses, brain disorders, certain neurochemicals (monoamine oxidase (MOA), epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin), and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder that can cause the violent behavior in individuals. Certain brain traumas (brain injuries) can also exacerbate the prevalence of the violent behavior. (Magnavita, 2012)

Personality is the accumulation, the total, of our “thoughts, emotions and behaviors.” It is also the way in which we interact with other people and how we relate to our world today. Personality is how we see other people, and how we see ourselves. Personality is in a formative state during childhood. It is shaped through the interaction of our genes and our environment. When people have personality disorders, these disorders are caused by “genetic and environmental influences.” What happens many times is: a person’s genes can predispose him “to developing a personality disorder, and a life situation may trigger the actual development.” (Mayo Clinic, 2015)

References

Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories of Personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. This text is a Constellation™ course digital materials (CDM) title

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015). Diseases and conditions. Personality disorders. Retrieved online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/personality-disorders/basics/causes/con-20030111

Reif, A., Rosler, M. Freitag, C.M., Schneider, M., Eujen, A., Kissling, C., Wenzler, D., Jacob, C.P., Retz-Junginger, P., Thome, J., Klaus-Peter, L. & Retz, W. (2007, Mar. 7). Nature and nurture predispose to violent behavior: Serotonergic genes and adverse childhood environment. Retrieved online at Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior article (http://www.nervenklinik.uk-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/uk/psychiatrie/Dokumente/Forschung/Psychiatric_Neurobiology_and_Bipolar_Disorder_Program/MAO-A_and_violent_crime.pdf

Schimmenti, A., Di Carlo, G., Passanisi, A. & Caretti, V. (2014, Dec. 22). Abuse in Childhood and Psychopathic Traits in a Sample of Violent Offenders. Psychological trauma: Theory, research, practice, and policy. Advance online publication. ISSN number: 1942-9681 (Print). 1942-969X (Electronic). Accession number: 2014-56019-001. Retrieved online at Ashford u. library psycARTICLES database. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000023

Yang, C., Huajie, B., Zhiquin, G., Hanqing, Z., Haiying, Y. & Wei, G. (2013, Dec.). A case-control study of allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci in males with impulsive violent behavior. Shanghai archives of psychiatry. ISSN: 1002-0829. Accession number: 93608152. Doi: 10.3969/j. Vol. 25. Issue 6. Retrieved online at Ashford library EBSCOhost database

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)