ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • Sociology & Anthropology»
  • Folklore & Mythology

Werewolves In Greek Mythology

Updated on September 21, 2012
A were-goyle at Notre Dame. I don't know about you, but I think this thing is much creepier than Lon Chaney, Jr.!
A were-goyle at Notre Dame. I don't know about you, but I think this thing is much creepier than Lon Chaney, Jr.! | Source

"He's the hairy-handed gent / who ran amok in Kent / Lately he's been overheard in Mayfair. You better stay away from him / He'll rip your lungs out Jim / I'd like to meet his tailor ."
- Warren Zevon from Werewolves Of London

In modern times, we've been bombarded with the legend of the werewolf since the invention of moving pictures. Lon Chaney, Jr. was the original, but there were many that came after him. Scores of werewolf movies have been produced over the years, from the vampire-hating Lycans in the Underworld franchise to the great, furry, lovelorn beasts of Twilight. They're pretty much everywhere.

Maybe you've heard some of the werewolf legends that originated in medieval Europe - they figure prominently in folklore all across the continent. Harald I of Norway, a king who reigned from 872 to 930, was said to have been a werewolf. Tales of shape-shifting boogeymen even show up in legends that have been handed down through multiple generations of Native American tribes.

The real origin of the werewolf may date back a lot further that the uneducated, superstitious peoples of medieval Europe or even those terrifying Navajo skinwalkers. The birth of the legend of man turning into wolf may have come from centuries before the time of Jesus and a place that you might not have thought of.

The Legend Of The Werewolf Begins In Arcadia

Before Greece became a unified country, it was a mash-up of several smaller states. In the center of the Peloponnese, at the southern tip of the Balkans, was a country called Arcadia. It was a warring nation, and the people inhabiting it were constantly struggling for territory. It was among these warring tribes that the legend of Lycaon was born.

These ancient people believed in a polytheistic religion made up of many major and minor gods. One of these, the granddaddy of them all, was an omnipotent, all-powerful deity named Zeus. The story goes (depending on which version you're reading) that the people of Arcadia had sworn their allegiance to a different god, one named Prometheus, who was credited with having created man out of clay and giving them fire that he stole from the heavens.

Because stealing that fire was a big no-no, Zeus gave Prometheus what could have been considered a stiff sentence, even back then. Poor Prometheus was chained to a rock where a seagull would eat his liver by day. At night, the organ regenerated, so he would have to suffer the torture again the next day and the day after that for all eternity.

So the Arcadians, having been caught in the act of worshiping the wrong god, got a little visit from Zeus. He presented himself in human form and announced who he was to everyone he met. Nearly all of the people immediately turned on Prometheus, or any other god that they may have been worshiping, and proclaimed their allegiance to Zeus... except for this one guy. The king at the time was a very busy, bloodthirsty monarch who ruled with an iron fist, had fifty sons (and three daughters) and went by the name of Lycaon. If worshiping the wrong god was strike number one, this guy managed strikes two through a billion all at the same time.

Zeus turns Lycaon into a wolf. Bad Lycaon!
Zeus turns Lycaon into a wolf. Bad Lycaon! | Source

Zeus Teaches Lycaon A Lesson And The Werewolf Is Born

(Please note that there are multiple versions of this legend, though none are nearly as interesting as this one.)

Lycaon was apparently a pretty stubborn guy. He also didn't believe that Zeus had anywhere near the level of omnipotence that the god led people to believe. So he decided to put Zeus to a little test when he learned that super-god was coming over for supper.

You already know that Lycaon had fifty sons. Well, maybe he decided that forty-nine was really enough, because he had his son Nyctimus killed, cooked and served on a platter for his company. Obviously, this did not make Zeus a happy visitor - he figured the deal out and got some godly revenge. Just as he did with Prometheus, he leveled a terrible punishment on Lycaon.

First, the god of gods destroyed Lycaon's remaining sons, likely with lightning bolts. He then tossed out some seriously amazing juju and brought the slaughtered and fricasseed kid, Nyctimus, back to life. And then, he did something that still sticks with us thousands of years later - he turned Lycaon into a wolf. Some versions of the story have Lycaon running away from Zeus's light show and transforming into the wolf as he fled. Lycaon may have also had the last laugh - he was a bloodthirsty tyrant who now had even more of an excuse to pillage and slaughter. (An alternate ending has everyone who ate the Nyctimus dish also turning into wolves.)

Not surprisingly, Lycaon may have changed his tune. Suddenly, he was the biggest Zeus-follower in Arcadia. He not only turned into a hero of his country, he also established the cult of Zeus Lycaeus (Zeus as the god of light). Some believe that he may have created the Lycaean Games, predating the Panathenaic Games which were a knock-off of the Olympics. It is from him that we have the word lycanthrope (lykànthropos, wolf plus human) which, today, is used to describe someone who is a regular Joe by day, but turns into a furry, growling predator on the night of the full moon. Lycanthropy is a term for mental patients who actually believe they are werewolves.

And there you have the story of how the werewolf originated as the result of a heavenly smack-down and a really disturbing banquet. Remember folks, not everything that goes bump in the night was created by Hollywood!

"We should never try to deny the beast – the animal within us."
- Dr. George Waggner, The Howling

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Georgie Lowery profile image
      Author

      Georgianna Lowery 4 years ago from Lubbock, TX

      ImKarn23:

      Sorry I somehow missed your comment! But werewolves can be scary, except those Twilight ones. ;)

      ChleotheWitch:

      Thank you! This one was fun to write. :)

      Thank you for the comments! :)

    • profile image

      ChleotheWitch 4 years ago

      Awesome Hub! You did a great job on this and its very informative as well! Keep up the awesome work!

    • ImKarn23 profile image

      Karen Silverman 5 years ago

      Werewolves are responsible for some of my best frights! Most notably - A Werewolf in London - scared hell out of me! I don't know why i thought they were tied to gypsy folklore...my bad..

      Thanks for the straight poop on ww's..

    • Georgie Lowery profile image
      Author

      Georgianna Lowery 5 years ago from Lubbock, TX

      Mhatter99:

      I love these old stories. Thank you for reading!

      Garifalia:

      Thank you for the compliment! I like to make things interesting, and I love to tell a story! :)

      Julie Fletcher:

      Eleventy-one kids and you can't spare any? Seriously? Do you think T really tastes like bacon burgers? (Thank yoU! :D)

      savingkathy:

      Thank you so much! I love telling stories, and I really love it when people listen to them!

      DS Duby:

      Two great minds on the same wavelength? I'm on it! :)

      mejohnson:

      There are so many great ancient myths and legends that we could probably both write about them for the next ten years and never cover them all!

      Thank you all for the reads and the comments. You totally make this worth doing !:)

    • mejohnson profile image

      mejohnson 5 years ago

      I forgot about this myth until now. Thanks for reminding me about this awesome tale.

    • DS Duby profile image

      DS Duby 5 years ago from United States, Illinois

      My thoughts exactly in fact I even mentioned that in my Michigan dogman hub a few weeks ago

    • savingkathy profile image

      Kathy Sima 5 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Georgie, you have a great writing style, and I love your light-hearted but informative approach on this topic. I'm looking forward to your next hub, whatever it's about.

    • Julie Fletcher profile image

      Julie Fletcher 5 years ago

      I'm well on my way to 50 kids. Hm...most of them are too rotten to serve to anyone.

      Loved this. You did a great job of making what could have been a dry, boring Hub into something special. Great job, G.

    • profile image

      Garifalia 5 years ago

      I really like the way you write. It's the type of breezy writing that takes you from the beginning of a text to the end and you're left with a comfort wanting to read all the more. It's very nice having come across you Georgie.

    • Mhatter99 profile image

      Martin Kloess 5 years ago from San Francisco

      How fascinating. Thank you for sharing and bringing the legend alive with us.

    • Georgie Lowery profile image
      Author

      Georgianna Lowery 5 years ago from Lubbock, TX

      billybuc:

      Thank you! I love me some werewolf flicks, too, but dang they can be cheesy!

      carol7777:

      I can't take credit for the title - it's from my apprenticeship mentor. It was fun researching, though.

      Millionaire Tips:

      A dog named Zeus? Just make sure he doesn't chain you to a rock! All of the old gods were interesting, but Zeus was particularly spiteful.

      DS Duby:

      The fact that these legends grew independently of each other makes me wonder if there is some truth to the myth?

      mpropp:

      There actually wasn't much information avaiblable about this particular legend. I took what I found and embellished it to make a good story, but I couldn't find anything about why Lycaon roasted up his kid. My imagination wants to say that he wanted to see if Zeus would know the difference.

      Thank you for all the comments, I really appreciate them!

    • mpropp profile image

      Melissa Propp 5 years ago from Minnesota

      Very interesting topic and well-written. It is fascinating to hear how far back the legend of werewolves goes. I had no idea it came from Greek mythology. Still don't understand why Lycaon would think it was a good idea to kill and cook his own child...Seems like he could have started the vampire mythology too!

    • DS Duby profile image

      DS Duby 5 years ago from United States, Illinois

      Really cool story Georgie lycanthropes are in nearly every culture in the world all through history, it's pretty crazy stuff. You did s great job with the story voted up awesome and interesting

    • Millionaire Tips profile image

      Shasta Matova 5 years ago from USA

      I guess if I had 50sons, I might want to give a visiting god a special treat! What an interesting story! I named my dog Zeus, but I need to read up on the god to learn more about him. Voted up!

    • carol7777 profile image

      carol stanley 5 years ago from Arizona

      This is a topic I have never researched. However I really enjoyed this and a new learning experience. You did a great job my friend. I am voting up.

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 5 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Very cool hub, Georgie! Some of my favorite movies are werewolf movies. Great job!