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Western Civilization post midterm 10/7

Updated on November 10, 2013

Western civilization- second half

Empires with major tension in religious domains beyond Europe

Empiricism-> observe-> method->scientific method-> corpses-> Reason/ Logic- Church’s authority

...Takes away monopoly from church...

Medieval Medicine- group of elements...bleeding the sick

Driven by crisis/ questions to find answers

Humanism- intellectual and cultural movement opposing church & logic centered practices of scholastic- nature of God? Realistic paintings go overboard-> logic; lawyers can argue either case, draw upon classic use of language-increase or expand vocabulary- tensions of body’s and identities, creation of Bible heroes and other Christian themes, certain subversive in poetry... took someone you don't like and put them in hell, hidden messages-literary and painting... weren't actually challenging church, social stratification, can convince people of credibility, THE RHETORIC: persuasion, abstract and bring to life; “to know what someone knows” dealing with deception, Politics; using everything necessary

Machiavelli- loosened reigns of fear from those doing anything to get what they want; law (by the book) vs. force- to beasts (The Lion and the Fox- a prince should use man and the beast) p. 334

Civic humanism-manners; represent identities, step towards participation, reflects importance of privilege

Fall of Constantinople- East side(Balkan peninsula Muslims extend to Ottoman) massive loss of empire- 1453- Interesting forms of exchange- north east Africa- coffee- Iberia--Gave shift in Christianity- Conquered and named --- Muslim Spain loses territory 1492- reconquest & New world- direct access to Asia, Muslim presence was further away

Renaissance tied with Muslim world- Reconquista (re-conquest) of Muslims in Spain 900-1492- New world is continuation of adapting to Muslim- Crusades, economic religious political and cultural expansion interest- Europe is trying to get away from DAR (house of Islam)- 1453 sacked by Ottoman

Merchants and soldiers exposing Europe to people of Florence, Geneva, Venice

City centered (Venetians especially) fund and organize crusades, expansion of commerce inseparable from soldiers traveling. -- Church's authority questioned

Italy: So much surplus, they can afford exponential architecture and art

War is good for economy if you win or work to rebuild other societies

Spain (Iberia) has enormous wealth in precious metals but don't prosper industrial revolution because of luxury goods

P.349- before 1942 many efforts and forces that shape USA esp. Portuguese Madera- high alcohol wine

Passage across Africa- Brutal- take these techniques to islands to Caribbean- foundation of slavery & cash crops for maximum profit

Atlantic Islands become “incubator” for old world colonies (sugar) import slaves (trans-Atlantic slave system- experiment of plantations-

Like Fed Ex- tapping into market but just transporting- Europe does not have capacity to make trade networks trying to get more access to Asia India & Africa- directly interested in trade & explore side by side

Treaty of Tortes us- Portuguese have new world- pope draws a line to determine empires- half for Spanish half for Portuguese

Columbian Exchange- changes planet! - turning point- genocide while they were supposed to spread Christianity, ongoing interaction between old and new world with the spread of goods people and ideas and plants animals (old worlds better but turkey, cotton, tobacco, cassava: Euka-cooks with meat: feeds allot of people: raises population in Africa, Potatoes (moves to old, lots move to new, lots to do with culture) and diseases (much much worse), devastating to population

Halls of Montezuma- doesn’t care about culture (uncivilized) only materials and its value---- kill or convert

New world received useful things

Old world: everything but America's

21 generations of Latin America mix-- new people- Iberian, Amerindians, Africans

Mixed- Portuguese, mulligan

Inflation- too much precious metal/ money chasing after too few goods

Mercantilism- Dutch Sea based trade network- insurance stock & corporations

Rise of new arrogance & ambition- Conquistador- get rich or die trying

Spanish and Portuguese both Control land and then people on land

Bourgeoisie- town dwellers new class- need nice things- joint share holder STOCK

France is epicenter for national culture-mean spirited- like to generate inequality but hate monarchy-- ideas such as freedom are a glimmer in an eye- jealous and hate royals- but gain power

Louis 14 calls them lap dog aristocracy- not threatening- French bourgeoisie

Penninsularies- from Spain

Creole- Spanish born in new world

Reconsista- Conquistador- Columbian exchange- Treaty of toreseis

Protestant Reformation (Goal: Earn money while on earth)

Split of Christianity- Intense shift to Intellectualism & Humanism brings to life flaws in church

People created own cultural system

Printing Press- Didn’t have to go to church because Holy Bible was printed-Vernacular (every language) - Shift in ways of reading & writing

Broad indictment of culture- Azimuths of “Praise of Folly” (laughing at accident) --- Connecting people

Hymns for people that couldn’t read ---Shape & line singing: (Highs and lows)

Education: Accountability & transparency of Church

Italy (others jealous kind of)

Larger Protestant movement MARTIN LUTHOR: thought Italy was disgusting and Italians were sinners, he gave German Princes the position for separation of church & state

Public Houses (now Pubs) & Coffee Houses: Where Bourgeoisie gossiped about business & politics; eventually giving rise to newspaper

Evolution of Machiavelli!

Miguel Cervantes “Don Quixote”- very long rewarding asking why & what we believe in (long & tortured love story)

Calvin- Pre Destination- Many are called few are chosen—Prot. Reform.—Early Modern Capitalism

Cannot take away all Christianity Modern synthesis

Catholic Church – Counter Reformation—Protestants had point- Jesuits push into far reaches of revered world for knowledge

Social Mobility- interested and engaged; bourgeois: not elite but pursue it & Peasants clearly peasants

Insist & value principals of equality when it’s good for them- not majority but growing 1500 onwards

1 Aristocracy & 2 Clergy, 3 Bourgeois and 4 Peasants- 3 fighting formal classes

Criminal Class- prostitutes, musicians, wanderers, beggars, doctors... people that don't own land grow in #'s


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