ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

What Are The Key Components Of Physical And Health Related Fitness?

Updated on June 12, 2012

What is Physical Fitness and what are the Components of Fitness?

Effectively physical fitness can be classified on two levels

  • Health and Wellbeing (General Fitness)


  • Specific Fitness (Task Orientated such as Sports and Skill Related Fitness)

Many consider fitness to be relative to one's needs in terms of performing the day's required tasks and responsibilities without excessive fatigue however over time the terminology has become much more specific and the term physical fitness has become a vital part of many people's lives.

What is physical fitness?

In classifying physical fitness it is imperative to assess the components of physical fitness in order to achieve an overall impression. These components can either be health or skill related.

What are the key components of fitness?

Can you name the key components of physical fitness?
Can you name the key components of physical fitness?

Health related components of physical fitness.

These factors assess how well your body and it's system work as part of your general health.

Cardiovascular Fitness/ Aerobic endurance

Cardiovascular fitness focuses on the circulatory system which supplies oxygen to the body via the use of the heart and lungs which is key for aerobic exercise. Examples of athletes with high levels of aerobic endurance and cardiovascular fitness are cyclists in the Tour De France and marathon runners.

Body Composition:

Your body composition is a measure of how your body is comprised. Are you an endomorph, mesomorph or ectomorph. What is your body fat composition? What is your BMI? And how much of your weight is muscle? These all have a bearing on your fitness.

Generally Sumo Wrestlers have a high level of body fat and this is a requirement to be successful within the sport.


What is the range of movement capable of your joints? The elasticity of your ligaments and tendons Ironically it is the shape of many of your bones which influence your flexibility as they define the movement at each of your joints. While not often considered as an important component of physical fitness, flexibility is extremely important for muscle force generation and should never be neglected by an athlete.

Muscular strength

How much force can your muscles generate with each contraction? However your muscular strength can be broken down into subcategories which define strength types.

`.Explosive strength. Muscular strength from one single quick powerful contraction such as in a shot put. (Closely linked to power)

The equation for power is Power = Force X Distance

2.Dynamic Strength is where high forces are repeatedly exerted by the contracting muscle such as track cycling in a sprint event where a huge power output must be maintained

Muscular endurance:

Your muscles' ability to continue movement and resist fatigue is required for a high level of muscular endurance. This can either be one long contraction or a period of multiple powerful contractions. Muscular endurance does have a huge crossover with cardiovascular endurance as oxygen needs to be provided to working muscles. Olympic rowers need a high level of muscular endurance (as well as cardiovascular performance) to power the rowing boat throughout a race.

What fitness do you need to climb a mountain?

What components of fitness do you need to climb a mountain?
What components of fitness do you need to climb a mountain?

Specific Fitness Components

Specific fitness components are more defined based on sports background and therefore have different levels of importance and prominence within differing sports as no two sports and no two athletes are alike. These specific fitness components are task specific.

A modern additional component of physical fitness- Core stability

While not being classified by many as a component of fitness, core stability has grown in it's importance within sports specific components is paramount as it refers to ones ability to maintain a strong posture throughout sporting activity. Weaknesses in posture and core stability can lead to weakness within motor skills that are paramount in many sports. When core stability is poor it forces other muscles to play a stabilizing role increasing chance of injury. An obvious example of athletes for whom core stability is a key component of fitness are gymnasts.

Core stability can often be linked with aspects of balance as a specific component of physical fitness.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • CyclingFitness profile imageAUTHOR

      Liam Hallam 

      6 years ago from Nottingham UK

      Thanks for the comment resolveyourpain. Personally the juries out on stretching as so many exercisers do it wrongly.

      I've found that PNF stretching works well for myself but getting a willing partner and one who has the right level of control is difficult at times.

    • resolveyourpain profile image

      Anthony Ohm 

      6 years ago from Honolulu, Hawaii, Oahu

      A great hub, very informative and cut to the point. All the points are valid. I am also stretching coach and I also stress the facts that you have highlighted. Most of the body pain and sports injuries are due to stiff muscles, so it important to involve in physical exercise and make your body more tolerable towards wear and tear and hence injuries and pains. Here is one of my many articles on how to avoid injuries, hope you and fellow hub followers like this:


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)