What is Communism? Effects of Communism?
WHAT IS COMMUNISM?
:- Communism is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
It is a theory or system of social organization in which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to their ability and needs.
Communist command economies can wholly transform societies to conform to the planner's vision.
Communism is a political and economic ideology that positions itself in opposition to liberal democracy and capitalism, advocating instead a classless system in which the means of production are owned communally and private property is nonexistent or severely curtailed.
Examples include defeat Stalinist Russia, Maoist China, and Castro's Cuba. Russia's command economy built up the military strength to the Nazis, and then quickly rebuilt the economy after World War II.
EFFECT’S OF COMMUNISM :-
Communism has a centrally planned economy; it can quickly mobilize economic resources on a large scale, execute massive projects, and create industrial power. It can move so effectively because it overrides individual self-interest and subjugates the welfare of the general population to achieve critical social goals.
2.Marx thought that the economic system of communism would replace capitalism. Communism is based on principles meant to correct the problems caused by capitalism. The most important principle of communism is that no private ownership of property should be allowed.
3. You might want to read “Animal Farm” of George Orwell, I think the book describes very well what happens when communism came to Vietnam.
Positive impacts: there’s none, in my opinion. It benefits the communist elites and some middle-class people, but limits the country’s development as a whole.
Negative impacts: we can classify the impacts into economy and social.
Economy: instead of free market, the communist party believes in centralisation of the economy. The state plans and runs every economic activity. North Vietnam from 1954 to 1975, and the whole country from 1975 to 1986 were managed that way. The result was a stagnant economy and starving people (similar to Cuba or Venezuela).
Foreign companies used to think about Vietnam as a potential market due to cheap labor and stable politics. However, it’s now clear to them that the productivity is too low compared to other countries (China, Malaysia, Thailand, etc.), corruption is too high, and there’re not enough high-quality workers. Those are the direct results of corrupted politics created by the communist party.
2. Social: Vietnamese society used to emphasise certain values such as honesty, honour, generosity, and especially family values. The communist party deteriorated those values through their policy, for example:
Land reform: during the land reform, the communist party encouraged people to accuse their family of being landlords and the party’s enemy. A lot of people were forced to see their parents, grandparents or rich relatives as bad people. Kids were taught to insult their parents. Workers and helps were taught to insult their former employers, etc.
Class division: the communist party brainwashes everyone that the only honourable people are workers and farmers. Business people and educated people used to be seen as bad because they don’t directly produce goods for the society.
Religion control: the communist party doesn’t love religion. They’ve been trying to limit the influence of Catholic churches as well as Buddhism in Vietnam. It is said that a lot of the monks in Vietnamese temples are hired by the government.
4. "After being reunited with West Germany, most East Germans have retained a decidedly Communist view of what the government should do in terms of providing a social safety net and redistributing wealth from rich to poor."
While the common view in the West is that most Europeans who lived under Communism were happy to trade state-run economies for free-market capitalism, it turns out that their Marxist indoctrination may have more staying power than previously thought. In Goodbye Lenin (or Not?): The Effects of Communism on People's Preference (NBER Working Paper No. 11700), co-authors Alberto Alesina and Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln find that after being reunited with West Germany, most East Germans have retained a decidedly Communist view of what the government should do in terms of providing a social safety net and redistributing wealth from rich to poor. The authors conclude that the exposure to Communism has made East Germans "much more pro-state than West Germans."
"This effect could arise due to indoctrination (such as teaching the virtues of Communism in the schools) or simply due to becoming used to an intrusive public sector," they write. "A second, indirect effect of Communism is that by making former East Germany poorer than West Germany, it has made the former more dependent on redistribution and therefore more favorable to it."
Alesina and Fuchs-Schündeln see Germany as an ideal laboratory for studying the lingering influence of Communism on a society because, prior to its partition in 1945, East and West Germans were, culturally and economically, almost indistinguishable. Therefore, one can attribute differences in contemporary attitudes to the different systems they lived under until unification in 1990.