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Difference between Magic and Religion - Difference between Magic and Science
Magic is a ritual practice applying the belief that supernatural powers can be compelled to act in certain ways for good or evil purposes by recourse to certain specified formula.
Frazer identified two types of magic; they are Homeopathic which means like produces like and Contagious which means once in contact is always will be in contact.
Raymond Firth classified magic into three types basing on the aims that it serves. They are Productive, Protective and Destructive.
Classification of Magic
Productive Magic: It includes magic of hunting, magic of fertility, magic of rain making, magic of security, magic of successful or abundant harvesting, making of successful fishing and magic of successful love making and courtship. Productive magic is performed by either private individuals or by magicians. It is socially approved. It serves as a stimulus afford/effort and as a part of organisation of economic and social activity.
Protective Magic: It includes taboos to guard property, magic to access collection of debts, magic to avert mis-fortune, magic for the cure of the sickness, magic for safety in travel and magic to counter mis-fortune and danger in travel. Protective magic is performed either by private individuals by themselves or by specialist magicians for another or to a group or to the whole community. To protective crops, skull of cattle, effigies or decorated pots are placed upright in the fields. To protect cattle amulets are hung around their necks or horns. To safeguard oneself against misfortune, against malevolent spirits and other forms of evil one may wear amulets. To cure the sick, a magician use spells, rites/rituals, medicines, amulets and any other magical elements. All such protective measure are socially approved.
Destructive Magic: It includes magic to destroy others' property, magic to produce sickness, magic to bring death, magic to bring storms, magic to produce scarcity of game, magic for destruction done to plants, individuals, group of the whole community. Destructive magic is in the form of harmful sorcery or witchcraft.
Difference between Magic and Religion
Controls supernatural powers.
Supplicates oneself to supernatural powers.
Uses rites and spells.
Uses prayers and rituals.
Highlights public activity.
Involves coercion to achieve desired end.
Involves submission to achieve the desired result.
It is individualistic.
It is communalistic.
Serves both benevolent and malevolent ends.
Serves only benevolent ends.
Distinguish between good and evil.
Distinguish sin from that which deffers from merit.
Presumes rigid relation of cause and effect.
Presumes the roles of supernaturals to bestow desired ends.
Difference between Magic and Science
Magic deals with supernatural world.
Science deals with natural world.
Magic is based on wrong assumption of cause and effect relations.
Science is based on right assumption of cause effect relations.
It is a matter of uncertainity.
It is a matter of facts and certainity.
Magic presumes occult causes.
Science predicts natural causes.
Magic cannot be experimentally justified.
Science can be experimentally justified.
It is based on wrong association of ideas.
It is based on correct association of ideas.
Magic is mysterious and sometimes a part of the sacred.
Real and part of the world of profane activities.