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What is a Rock Chuck?

Updated on July 16, 2012

Yellow Bellied Marmot


A rock chuck, or yellow bellied marmot, is a ground squirrel common in the Rocky Mountains. It is related to wood chucks, or ground hogs, whose habitat is in eastern North America. They are approximately the size of a cat, about 50 centimetres long, with a tail 15 centimetres in length. They are named for the yellowish fur on their bellies, and usually live 13 to 15 years.

Yellow bellied marmots live in colonies in burrows which they dig in open territory at higher altitudes, usually above 2000 metres above sea level. They prefer to dig the entrances to the burrows under rocks scattered on grasslands, meadows, or scattered forest, where the rocks protect them from predators, such as owls, eagles, badgers, wolverines and coyotes. The burrows typically have several entrances, so the rodents can escape strategically if one of the entrances is unsafe.


Guarding the pack, two Yellow Bellied Marmots, or Rock Chucks, perch at sunset on stones on the Thompson River bank at Kamloops, British Columbia.
Guarding the pack, two Yellow Bellied Marmots, or Rock Chucks, perch at sunset on stones on the Thompson River bank at Kamloops, British Columbia. | Source
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Yellow Bellied Marmots are common in McArthur Park, Kamloops, where tourists and residents enjoy watching the colonies that sun and play near the path


Rock chucks eat a varied diet of whatever they can forage close to the ground, consuming fruit, flowers, leaves, seeds and sometimes insects. They are active during the day, and are especially active in gathering food in early morning and evening, resting in their burrows during the heat of the day.

These Rock Chucks, in the Ground Squirrel family, are quite used to people and allow close approach.  Their den is in the riverbank below a pile of broken concrete slabs.
These Rock Chucks, in the Ground Squirrel family, are quite used to people and allow close approach. Their den is in the riverbank below a pile of broken concrete slabs. | Source
Rock Chuck, or Yellow Bellied Marmot in Kamloops, Canada. They live in family groups with one male and several adult females, as well as juveniles.
Rock Chuck, or Yellow Bellied Marmot in Kamloops, Canada. They live in family groups with one male and several adult females, as well as juveniles. | Source

Ground Squirrel Hibernation


Like other ground squirrels, yellow bellied marmots hibernate in winter. They prepare deeper hibernation burrows, up to five meters deep, so the resting chamber is below the frost line and the hibernating animals stay warmer. Depending on the snowfall and temperatures of their locale, they hibernate from late September or October until April or May. At the end of the summer season their diet includes high-protein seeds as much as they can find, to build up a layer of body fat to support their metabolism during their winter sleep.


Once they emerge from their burrows in the spring, rock chucks mate, and the young ones are born in May or June after one month gestation, in nests of grass the parents have built inside the burrows. Like other mammals, the young, usually born in litters of 3 to 5 pups, drink milk from their mother. For the first three weeks the babies stay underground. Usually around two weeks after the mother moves them above ground, she weans them so they can have several months to build up fat to help them survive their first winter's hibernation, when they will lose up to half of their body weight. Many yearlings do not survive their first winter.


Yellow bellied marmots live in family groups with one adult male and two or three females, who take care of all the young collaboratively. Living in groups is a survival measure, and often one will be seen guarding while the others feed, groom, play or rest. In the second summer, the juvenile males and some of the females are driven away to form their own group, whereas some of the juvenile females may stay with the mother for their lifetime. Once the pack gets too large, it splits and a young male takes over one of the groups of females.


Although yellow bellied marmots look cute as cats, they are wild animals and should not be petted. They may be carriers of disease, such as rabies, or the plague caused by the bacterium Y. pestis.

Sources: University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Web


Why do marmots need to gain weight before winter?

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Yellow Bellied Marmot, or Rock Chuck is alert, and the next moment after the picture was taken, he ran under the rocks to the burrow.
Yellow Bellied Marmot, or Rock Chuck is alert, and the next moment after the picture was taken, he ran under the rocks to the burrow. | Source

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    • profile image

      rebecca 

      3 years ago

      i see alot of these critters in montana, they are very smart.

    • Janis Goad profile imageAUTHOR

      Janis Goad 

      6 years ago

      In Canada we have Wiarton Willie, the groundhog who comes out on Groundhog Day on February 22, to see if spring is coming. The legend is, that if he sees his shadow-- that is, if the day is sunny-- he is scared by his shadow and hides. In that case, spring will start six weeks later. If the day is cloudy and the groundhog does not see his shadow, spring will come early.

      Why is Puxtawny Phil famous? I wonder if there is similar lore about him.

    • chrissieklinger profile image

      chrissieklinger 

      6 years ago from Pennsylvania

      I live in Pennsylvania, where Puxtawney Phil, the famous groundhog lives and after seeing these photos, Rock Chucks are much cuter!

    • Janis Goad profile imageAUTHOR

      Janis Goad 

      6 years ago

      Susan, we see them every time we go to McArthur Park, as their burrow is right beside the park. People sit on the bench nearby and watch them play.

      Thanks for reading and commenting!

      TheRaggedEdge, they are native to North America. This pack let me get very close to take pictures with the zoom lens. They are used to people, and let me get about two metres away before they ran under their rocks.

      Thank you for visiting!

      Brainy Bunny, children always stop to look at them, and want to touch them because they appear so tame. the marmots always run away first, though.

      thanks for reading!

    • Brainy Bunny profile image

      Brainy Bunny 

      6 years ago from Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania

      I've never seen anything like these little guys, but they sure are adorable. Nice hub and good photos!

    • theraggededge profile image

      Bev G 

      6 years ago from Wales, UK

      Aw... so cute :) I've never heard of them either. We don't have anything like these in the UK. I suppose squirrels and martens would be the closest we have. Love your photos!

    • Just Ask Susan profile image

      Susan Zutautas 

      6 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Cute little critters :) I'd never heard of a rock chuck before. I can see why they're related to the groundhog as they do look similar to one. Interesting hub.

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