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What is Cell Division?

Updated on September 8, 2014
Cell division is the separation of chromosomes and division into two identical daughter cells.
Cell division is the separation of chromosomes and division into two identical daughter cells.

Cell Division

To guarantee that every cell in the body has the same genetic information, cell reproduction occurs through the process called mitosis.

Cell reproduction means producing offspring that may or may not be exact copies of their parents. It is a part of a life cycle, which is a series of events wherein individuals grow, develop, and reproduce according to a program of instructions encoded in DNA, which they inherit from their parents. When cells divide, each daughter cell receives a complete copy of DNA and enough cytoplasmic machinery to start up its own operation. DNA contains the blueprints for making different proteins. Some of the proteins serve as structural materials. Others serve as enzymes for reactions by which carbohydrates, lipids and other substances are formed. Proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are used in building the membranes, organelles and other parts of each new cell. In all cells and some cells of the reproductive system cell division consists of mitosis and cytokinesis.


Mitosis is the division of cell nucleus, which results in the formation of two daughter nuclei with exactly the same genes as the mother.
Mitosis is the division of cell nucleus, which results in the formation of two daughter nuclei with exactly the same genes as the mother.

What is mitosis?

Mitosis is the division of cell nucleus, which results in the formation of two daughter nuclei with exactly the same genes as the mother nucleus. When the nucleus divides, each daughter cell ends up with exactly the same genetic information as the original mother and the original fertilized egg from which it came. The life cycle of a cell extends from the time that the cell is formed until its division has been completed. Mitosis is only a small part of the cycle; it lasts only for a few minutes or an hour or more. Typically, it takes for 2 hours. Mitosis provides the new cells for body growth in youth and vital to repair body tissues all through life. Disorganized mitosis is the basis for tumors and cancers. The cycle has two major periods: interphase and cell division. Interphase is the period in which the cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities. Cell division or mitotic phase is the period in which the cell reproduces itself. Mitosis is the same in all animal cells. Mitosis typically lasts about 2 hours, however It could take place from 5 minutes to several hours to complete depending on the type of tissue.

Interphase

The chromosomes are in an extended form and seen as chromatin in the electron microscope and the nucleus is visible.

Stages of Mitosis

These are the stages of Mitosis:

Prophase:

The chromosomes are seen to consist of two chromatids joined by a centromere. The centrioles move apart toward opposite poles of the cell. Spindle fibers are produced and extend from each centrosome. The nuclear membrane starts to disappear and the nucleolus is no longer visible.

Metaphase:

The chromosomes are lined up at the equator of the cell. The spindle fibers from each centriole are attached to the centromeres of the chromosomes and the nuclear membrane has disappeared.

Anaphase:

During anaphase, sister chromatids of each chromosomes are separated. Microtubule-based mechanisms move the two chromatids of each pair to opposite poles.

Telophase:

Telophase is essentially prophase in reverse. Microfilaments begin to constrict at equatorial plane. New nuclear membranes start forming. The nucleus reappears. Cell division is nearly complete.


Images of the Stages of Mitosis

Cytoplasmic Division
Cytoplasmic Division

Cytokinesis or cytoplasmic division

Cytokinesis is the cytoplasmic division accompanying or following nuclear divisions. The onset of cytokines is marked by the appearance of scattered deposits of materials around microtubules at the spindle equator. The deposits then accumulate until they form a distinct layer across the cell. Then there is the appearance of a shallow ring-like depression at the plasma membrane called cleavage furrow. At the cleavage furrow, a ring of contractile microfilaments attached to the plasma membrane pulls the membrane inward eventually dividing the cytoplasm into two. Thus at the end of cell division, two identical daughter cells exist.

Questions for Study and Review

1. Define and contrast mitosis and cytokinesis.

2. Name the process of cell division. What happens to the chromosomes during cell division? What about to the organelles?

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    • Ivyespanola profile image

      Ivyespanola 

      2 years ago

      Ivory Española BSBA 3(1-4)

      Cytokinesis is an eventual outcome of mitosis

      when mitosis or cell division happens when all the DNA and proteins are already prepared the cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis) leading to 2 new cells and cytokinesis happens in certain phases of mitosis like anaphase and telophase.

      The mitosis division process has several steps or phases of the cell cycle: interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis—to successfully make the new diploid cells. When a cell divides during mitosis, some organelles are divided between the two daughter cells.

    • MariellaDelaPaz profile image

      Mariella Dela Paz 

      2 years ago

      Cell division depends on two complementary events- the replication of the DNA molecules taht make up the basic genetic material of all cells, and orderly separation of the products of this replication. In simple prokaryotes, where only a single unit of DNA exist, these two events are intimately coupled with an inward growth of the cell membrane.

      In eukaryotes, the process is more complex. Here, the DNA is combined with histone protein and is separated into two or more discrete chromosomes that are enclosed in a distict nuclear membrane. Division of the nucleus thus precedes divison of the cytoplasm, and both are necessary for cell division. During nuclear division, the behavior of the individual chromosomes must be coordinated, both spatially and temporary. This is achieved by the assembly of two temporary sets of microtubules that together form a spindle. The products of chromosome replication are oriented and move within this system as a result of the activity of specialized chromosome regions, called kinetochores or centromeres.

      In most animal cells, two parts of centrioles are present at one pole of the cell. Where centrioles are present, a radiating system of microtubules or the aster may form around them. During the initial stages of nuclear division, these astral microtubules proliferate and lengthen. Simultaneously, each centriolar pair moves away from the other pair until they occupy diametrically opposed positions outside the nuclear membrane. This is accompanied by the development of a system of spindle fibers between but not connected with the separating centriolar pairs.

    • profile image

      Lance Simbulan 

      2 years ago

      Lance Reuel S. Simbulan BSA 1-3

      Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. The primary concern of cell division is the maintenance of the original cell's genome. Before division can occur, the genomic information that is stored in chromosomes must be replicated, and the duplicated genome must be separated cleanly between cells. A great deal of cellular infrastructure is involved in keeping genomic information consistent between "generations".

    • Nikka Lei Angeles profile image

      Nikka Lei Angeles 

      2 years ago

      Angeles, Nikka Lei S. BSA 1-4

      Cell division is vital in repairing, producing and maintaining our cells. We are made up of cells, meaning Cell Division takes a big role on our body. It is known to be a process wherein the parent cell produces two or more daughter cells.

    • profile image

      Jan Marri Garcia 

      2 years ago

      Garcia, Jan Marri M. BSA 1-3

      Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half, to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).

    • ismaellozano123 profile image

      John Ismael Espino Lozano 

      2 years ago from Baliuag Bulacan Philippines

      Lozano, John Ismael E. (BSA 1-2)

      For me cell division is the reproduction of cells. It is essential to us because our whole body is compose of cell. It is the reason why our wounds heal because our cell reproduce to replace the lost cells cause by the wounds. Cell reproduction is important to us. There are also two kinds of cell reprodution: the mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the somatic division of cells (example male) while Meiosis is the reproductive division of cells (example female). we can related the cell division on our daily life.

    • profile image

      Aia karen Punzalan 

      2 years ago

      Why must cells divide? To start it off, cells can't keep growing forever, so when they reach a certain size they will have to divide. Cells divide for four important reasons; reproduction, growth, repair, and replacement of damaged or worn out cells. Most cells divide at least once during their life cycle and some divide divide dozens of time times before they die. There are three types of cell division. They are binary fission, mitosis, and meiosis. When cell division is in the form of mitosis it is usually associated with cell growth, replacement, and repair. When the cell goes through meisosis it usually involves asexual reproduction. Both the process of mitosis and meiosis involve the duplication of the DNA and the splitting of the nucleus.

      Mitosis is a type of cell division that produces two genteically identical cells from a single cell. Mitosis is basically a process that cells goes through to to form two new nuclei, with each nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes. Mitosis is used by many unicellular eukaryotic organisms for reproduction. Multicellular organisms use mitosis for growth, repair, and the cell replacement. An example of a multicelluar organism using mitosis for cell replacement is in the human body, the human body have about twenty-five million mitotic cell divisions occur every second to replace the cells that have finished their life cycles. There are five phases in the mitosis process. The phases are interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

      In every living things there are cells. But each living thing only begin life with one cell. The single cell soons begin to take in materials it needs to grow. While the cell is taking in the important materials it is also growing. When the cell is dividing, multiplying, and building it is going through growth. The cell continues with the process of multiplying, dividing, and building until it is fully de

    • profile image

      Mary Joy Anoch 

      2 years ago

      Mary Joy Anoche

      BSA1-2

      CELL DIVISION is a process that the parent cells divide into a daughter cells. This is a life cycle and by the process of mitosis. Each daughter cells will receive an equal and complete DNA from the parents cell. Mitosis is the process which form two daughter nuclei with exact genes as its mother nuclei.Mitosis have four stages and this are Prophase, Anaphase, Metaphase, and the Telophase.

    • profile image

      Emily Joyce V. Pahilanga (BSA 1-2) 

      2 years ago

      Cell division is the process by which the parent cell is divided into two and more daughters and it usually occur in the large cells. It is also involves the distribution of identical genetic material, DNA, to two daughters cells. What is most remarkable is the fidelity with which the DNA is passed along, without dilution or error, from one generation to the next. The exampleof this are Mitosis and Meiosis, where the Mitosis is the division of the cells that undergo in 4 kinds of phase, the prophase, , metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. while Meiosis is a reproduction of cell.

    • profile image

      Diana Angeles 

      2 years ago

      Angeles, Diana P.

      BSA1-4

      Cell reproduction means producing offspring that may or may not be exact copies of their parents. For us humans it is essential to know this knowledge because in this we can know that our parent is truly our parent because of the cell reproduction.

    • profile image

      abbygalvez 

      2 years ago

      Human life starts with two cells fusing together during fertilization. Through gestation, or pregnancy, we grow into tiny humans. As we age, there is tremendous growth - by the time we've reached our 20's, we've changed from a single cell into a fully-grown adult!How does this amazing feat happen? The answer is cell division. Cell division is the process of making two identical copies from one cell. All cells grow and split into two to continue their life cycle, however, different types of cells do this differently. There are two main types of cells: eukaryotes, which have a nucleus to hold their DNA, and prokaryotes, which don't have a nucleus. The DNA in prokaryotes is just free floating in the cell.To make this explanation short, all life begins and thrives through cellular processes, and cell division is the process of development and transformation.

    • Crislyn Roxas profile image

      Crislyn Roxas 

      2 years ago

      Roxas, Crislyn Joy D. BSA1-3

      People, like cell, undergo different stages. That's something we can't prevent from happening. In each stage, we grow and grow more. I can see the relevance of mitosis to our actual life. In order for the nucleus to be successfully divided, it has to undergo four stages. In life, for an individual to successfully reach his goal, he has to overcome and experience each stages for him to grow, to learn, and to succeed.

    • Rolaine Ingalla profile image

      Rolaine Ann Ingalla 

      2 years ago

      BSA 1-3 Within our body, there’s a lot of amazing little stuff existing there, wherein everyone grow, develop, divide, and reproduce. For organisms to grow, live, and develop, cells must divide to reproduce another cell. Being aware to this occurrence can help individual, like accountants, to become conscious on how one’s body is form and mature.

    • profile image

      ELLANOUR A. TABULA 

      2 years ago

      ELLANOUR A. TABULA BSBA 1-1

      Cell division is the process by which cells multiply involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic division — compare meiosis, mitosis.Cells reproduce genetically identical copies of themselves by cycles of cell growth and division. The cell cycle diagram on the left shows that a cell division cycle consists of 4 stages.Cells grow and monitor their environment to determine whether they should initiate another round of cell division. Cells check to make sure DNA replication has successfully completed, and make any necessary repairs.

    • alliakate profile image

      Allia Kate Maximo 

      2 years ago

      Allia Kate Maximo BSBA 1-1

      Cell division involves the distribution of identical genetic material, DNA, to two daughters cells. What is most remarkable is the fidelity with which the DNA is passed along, without dilution or error, from one generation to the next.

      Cell division process by which the parent cell produces daughter cells. The importance of cell division can only be grasped when one comes to realize that the growth, constant repair of worn-out tissues, reproduction and inheritance depend on this process.

    • alliakate profile image

      Allia Kate Maximo 

      2 years ago

      Allia Kate Maximo BSBA 1-1

      Cell division involves the distribution of identical genetic material, DNA, to two daughters cells. What is most remarkable is the fidelity with which the DNA is passed along, without dilution or error, from one generation to the next.

      Cell division process by which the parent cell produces daughter cells. The importance of cell division can only be grasped when one comes to realize that the growth, constant repair of worn-out tissues, reproduction and inheritance depend on this process.

    • profile image

      Clarice Mae Anne Torzar BSA 1-3 

      2 years ago

      Clarice Mae Anne Torzar BSA 1-3

      Before the cell finally divides, they will undergo through different stages. If you will notice, these stages were like our stay in school. Each year you will undergo through different stages and will advance to the next one. Until we reach the time that we're actually graduating and heading out to different fields.

    • Eunice Maranan profile image

      Eunice Maranan 

      2 years ago

      EUNICE S. MARANAN, BSA1-3. Cell Division is extremely important for an organism because it has the purpose for growth, repair and reproduction of organisms like us humans. It is very simple to understand that without cell division I may not be able to make this reflection or talk to other people. I may say that my life as an accountancy student is like the stages of cell division. Why? Because each stage is unique. From interphase to telophase and us, from 1st year college-5th year college. Each stage has something to do with progress until the cell divides itself. The significance of cell division and cytokinesis is that they need each other to perform their specific functions, just like us accountants and our future clients we need one another to achieve success.

    • profile image

      Pamela SanGabriel 

      2 years ago

      Pamela Mae T. San Gabriel

      BSA 1-4

      Cell division is a biological process by which a cell divides into two or more cells. During cell division, the cell nucleus splits and the DNA is replicated. There are two types of cell division - mitosis and meiosis. In mitosis, parent cell divides into daughter cells, each with a complete copy of the genetic material of the parent and with the capability to divide again. In meiosis, after division, cells have half the genetic material of the parent, and have to undergo fertilization to form a zygote, which is capable of further division. There's a need for us to study cell division because we will encounter and deal with people with distinct personalities and characteristics in the near future as well as the diversities of life.

    • profile image

      Trisha Ann Angeles 

      2 years ago

      Trisha Ann Angeles

      BSBA 1-1

      Cell division is a cellular process by which the parent cell produces daughter cells. The importance of cell division can only be grasped when one comes to realize the growth, constant repair of worn on tissues, reproduction and inheritance depend on this process. For unicellular organism, the result of cell division is for production. Prior to cell division, the cell undergoes interphase stage, simply called the resting stage of the cell, wherein during this stage the cell is not undergoing cell division.

    • profile image

      Glorielle Maris Sison Esquivel 

      2 years ago from Baliwag, Bulacan

      Glorielle Maris S. Esquivel

      BSA 1-2

      Cell division is the process by which a cell divides into two or more by means of reproduction in organisms that reproduce asexually, as byfission or spore formation. In organisms that reproduce sexually, cell division is the source of all tissue growth and repair.

      It is very important to us because our body is composed of billions of cells. It is very important because in multicellular organisms, cell division is essential for three major functions: growth, development, and repair. Cellular division is important because without these changes, most organisms would die. All life begins and thrives through cellular processes, and cell division is the process of development and transformation.

    • JoanaCordero profile image

      JoanaCordero 

      2 years ago

      Cordero, Joana Maidy C.

      BSA 1-4

      Cell division, cell reproduction or cell multiplication is the process of formation of new or daughter cells from the pre-existing or parent cells.The importance of cell division can be appreciated by realizing the following facts:1. Cell division is a pre-requisite for the continuity of life and forms the basis of evolution to various life forms.2. In unicellular organisms, cell division is the means of asexual reproduction, which produces two or more new individuals from the mother cell. The group of such identical individuals is known as clone.3. In multi-cellular organisms, life starts from a single cell called zygote (fertilized egg). The zygote transforms into an adult that is composed of millions of cells formed by successive divisions.4. Cell division is the basis of repair and regeneration of old and worn out tissues.

    • kimberlymagtalas profile image

      Kimberly Anne DC Magtalas 

      2 years ago

      Kimberly Anne DC. Magtalas BSA 1-3

      Cell division is involved in growth, development, and repair. Cells divide to replace old, dead, or damaged cells. Cells also divide so living things can grow. When organisms grow, it isn't because cells are getting larger. Organisms grow because cells are dividing to produce more and more cells. In human bodies, nearly two trillion cells divide every day. Cell division is a cellular process by which the parent cell produces daughter cells. Cell division includes Mitosis and Cytokinesis. Mitosis is the process of cell division where the parent cell divides producing daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. The mitosis division process has several phases of the cell cycle—interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Cytokinesis is the process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells.

    • ShairaRivera profile image

      Shaira Rehj Rivera 

      2 years ago

      Rivera, Shaira Rehj R.

      BSA 1-4

      In general, a large organism does not have larger cells than a small organism; it simply has many more cells than the small organism. When we were small, our body contained fewer cells than it has now. By the time we reach adulthood, our body will be made up of about 100 trillion cells. Although multicellular organisms begin as single cells, they grow into larger organisms through cell division. However, cell division alone does not allow organisms to develop. If cell division were the only process occurring in cells, all multicellular organisms would end up as spheres of identical cells. But during development, cells become specialized to perform particular functions. The body repairs injuries like by means of cell division. For example, when our skin is cut, skin cells on either side of the cut make new cells to heal the wound. That's why cell division is important, because it is involved in growth, development, and repair.

    • Rovy Kim Taruc profile image

      Rovy Kim Taruc 

      2 years ago

      Rovy Kim Taruc BSBA 1-1

      Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell and a reductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half, to produce haploid gametes.

      What is the importance of the cells to us humans? Cells is very important to us. Without this cells we are not alive.

    • Alyssa Delara profile image

      Alyssa Delara 

      2 years ago

      Alyssa Nicole M. De Lara BSBA 1-1

      The process by which a cell divides into two or more cells. Cell division is the means of reproduction in organisms that reproduce asexually, as by fission or spore formation. In organisms that reproduce sexually, cell division is the source of all tissue growth and repair. The two main types of cell division are mitosis and meiosis.

      one cell division is equivalent to reproduction – an entire new organism is created. On a larger scale, mitotic cell division can create progeny from multi cellular organisms, such as plants that grow from cuttings. Cell division also enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop from the one-celled zygote, which itself was produced by cell division from gametes. And after growth, cell division allows for continual construction and repair of the organism.[5] A human being's body experiences about 10 quadrillion cell divisions in a lifetime.

    • Jessica Ocampo profile image

      Jessica Ocampo 

      2 years ago

      Cell division is the process that cells go through in order to divide. Cells may divide for several reasons, and there are two types of cell division depending on the purpose. The cell division associated with sexual reproduction is one type, called meiosis. The other type, the cell division associated with growth and cell replacement or repair, is called mitosis. In both types of cell division, the nucleus splits and DNA is replicated.

      The cell division called mitosis produces daughter cells that have all the genetic material of the parent cell — a complete set of chromosomes. However, chromosomes are not the only material that needs to be divided and transferred to the daughter cells: there are cytoplasm and the cell membrane to divide as well. Cytokinesis is the process of dividing the cytoplasm and the cell membrane, and this process may follow immediately after mitosis or occur separately, depending on the organism involved. Together, these two processes make up the mitotic phases of the cell cycle.

    • profile image

      Guia Angeli Mananghaya 

      2 years ago

      The cell division is not a simple process; complicated changes have been noted in the substances of the nucleus. In this regard it is necessary to know about the chromosomes. The chromosomes are the slender, rope-like bodies that usually occur in pairs and found in the nucleus. The number of chromosomes remains constant in each species, which generally ranges between 2 to 200.

      The cell can be divided into two types – the somatic cell or body cell and the germ cell or reproductive cell. The somatic cell helps in construction and maintenance of different bodily structures. It can also be sub-divided into nerve cells, muscle cells, etc. in accordance with their nature and functio

    • Maryrose Cruz profile image

      Maryrose Cruz 

      2 years ago

      maryrose cruz

      BSBA 1-1

      cell division

      n.

      The process by which a cell divides to form two daughter cells. Upon completion of the process, each daughter cell contains the same genetic material as the original cell and roughly half of its cytoplasm.

      concept of cell division and genetics,:

      gene - basic unit of heredity; codes for a specific trait

      locus - the specific location of a gene on a chromosome (locus - plural loci)

      genome - the total hereditary endowment of DNA of a cell or organism

      somatic cell - all body cells except reproductive cells

      gamete - reproductive cells (i.e. sperm & eggs)

      chromosome - elongate cellular structure composed of DNA and protein - they are the vehicles which carry DNA in cells

      diploid (2n) - cellular condition where each chromosome type is represented by two homologous chromosomes

      haploid (n) - cellular condition where each chromosome type is represented by only one chromosome

      homologous chromosome - chromosome of the same size and shape which carry the same type of genes

      chromatid - one of two duplicated chromosomes connected at the centromere

      centromere - region of chromosome where microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis

    • Angelica Salinas profile image

      Angelica Salinas 

      3 years ago

      Angelica G. Salinas BSBA 1-1

      -

      Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half, to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions: homologous chromosomes are separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in the second division.

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