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Native Americans and the Formation and Independence of the 13 Colonies

Updated on July 11, 2018
Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Ms. Inglish has 30 years of successful experience in medicine, psychology, STEM courses, and aerospace education (CAP).

The arrival of the Mayflower began the journey that ended in the Original 13 English Colonies. From there, a New Nation emerged from among immigrant to North America.
The arrival of the Mayflower began the journey that ended in the Original 13 English Colonies. From there, a New Nation emerged from among immigrant to North America. | Source

Everyone living in America is an immigrant, descended from immigrants, or from an immigrant family going back at least 12,000 years.

Native American Migration as History

Everyone living in America is an immigrant, descended from immigrants, or from an immigrant family going back at least 12,000 years.

Even our indigenous peoples of the Americas - Native North Americans - arrived from another hemisphere in the distant past.

According to well known archaeological and genetic research by the Smithsonian Institute 2000 - 2016, they arrived from Northern Asia (some traveling from Far Northern Europe), Pacific Islands, and other places around Oceania.

The lands that became the United States of America and Canada were first inhabited by Indigenous Peoples descended from far in the past - Native North Americans. They all arrived from the northernmost reaches of Asia anywhere from 6,000 to 12,000 years or more previous to their First Contact with European explorers (references: Smithsonian Institution, IBM, and National Geographic Human Migration Project; The Ohio State University Department of Anthropology; massive projects in Californian Colleges and Universities; the combined works of Franz Boas, other).

These early peoples had migrated to the Western Hemisphere in search of more adequate food supplies as populations increased and depleted resources.

Salmon in Ohio were as long as a tall man's arm.

— Native America Storyteller

Abundant Resources in the New Land

Early immigrants became the Indigenous Peoples of North America, also called Native North Americans in the USA and Canada today. American Bison herds were thousands strong and salmon were gigantically larger than today - as long as a tall man's arm on average, according to Native America Storytellers in Ohio an d other Eastern Woodlands States.

The people used every part of each animal that sacrificed its life for them as food, clothing, lodging coverings, bow strings, arrowheads (bone), fuels (fats), color dyes, and more. Nothing was wasted. In the early 1600s, people from Spain, France, Sweden, Holland, and England arrived in this New World (to them it was new) and began staking out claims to lands that the Native Americans already inhabited. I do not know why they thought it was fair so to do.

Northern Europeans and Spaniards arrived first, but In the 1490s Christopher Columbus searched for a route to India and the Silk Road and landed in the New World. While his explorations may have been worthwhile, researchers point to his presence as an introduction to genocide for Native Americans (Please see data below).

Christopher Columbus - Both Sides of the Story

Foundation Stories

The Mayflower sailed from England and King James in 1620 with 103 people on board to found a community in the New Word. Unfortunately, the history of this venture has been covered in vague mythology and a Thanksgiving advertising campaign promoted in 1840. The whitewashing of events began in Plimouth/Plymouth Colony and then received a boost in 1840 by magazine retail advertising.

Cross Section of the Mayflower

The Mayflower
The Mayflower | Source

What of the Mayflower?

The Mayflower set off from England and away from King James in 1620 with 103 people on board to found a community in the New World.

Unfortunately, the history of this venture has been covered by mythology and some of the actual, more unsavory, occurrences like beer guzzling and random rifle shooting at the "first Thanksgiving.".

This was largely not an upstanding time in our nation's foundation history. The whitewashing of events began to change the image of the Saints and Strangers (about half and half) on the Mayflower in order to create a more wholesome and holy picture. This image was cultivated to enhance retail sales and to encourage America to fit an image of holiness and priority by a US business woman - Sarah Hale - beginning around 1840. Retailers like F & R Lazarus and Macy's jumped on board later to insist that Thanksgiving become a national holiday.

This all resulted in 20th century retail advertising and error-filled elementary school pageants of Thanksgiving. Because retail stores of all sizes began opening on Thanksgiving Day, by 2015, Americans were complaining that Thanksgiving was no longer special, but just a stepping stone between Halloween and Christmas

The Saints and Strangers on the Mayflower

Because retail stores of all sizes began opening on Thanksgiving Day, by 2015, Americans were complaining that Thanksgiving was no longer special, but just a stepping stone between Halloween and Christmas

The Mayflower Compact, 1620

IN THE name of God, Amen.

We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread sovereign Lord, King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland king, defender of the faith, etc., having undertaken, for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor of our king and country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God, and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape-Cod the 11 of November, in the year of the reign of our sovereign lord, King James, of England, France, and Ireland the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domine 1620.

-- William Bradford & others, November 11, 1620.

The Colonies That Rebelled Against England
The Colonies That Rebelled Against England | Source

The Make Up of Colonial America

Among the European nations that invaded rather than settled what is now America, England came to the forefront beginning with the lower class Saints (re-marketed as Pilgrims by 1840 retail ad campaigns) at Plymouth Rock in 1620.

Finally , we had the development of 13 major colonies along the Atlantic Seaboard through1775, a period of some 155 years (see above picture).

The history, sociology, and anthropology of the individual Colonies is contained in the link titled Colonial America - 1620 to 1775. England had other New World colonies, in what is now Canada and in the West Indies, but The 13 Colonies were viewed separately when they began to rumble thoughts of breaking with England.

It was once said, "The sun never sets on the British Empire." This is because England eventually had colonies across the globe. However, the sun did set on the Empire in America when the Colonies broke away.

See on the map of 1775 how my state of Ohio was once part of the Province of Quebec and belonged to the French. My maternal grandfather was French and Mohawk. A Mohawk ancestor translated during the French and Indian War at the Battle of Fort Pitt.

He apparently worked for the French or was neutral between French and British. His descendants lived and migrated throughout Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Interestingly, Mohawk Nation may be linked to Zulu Nation, both using a single word for "cousin" (OSU linguistics databases, 1996) as well as some DNA, and sharing similar attire, especially headdresses. Discover is ongoing.

Many reasons existed as a rationale for the people of the 13 Colonies of England in the New World to wish to break away from the British empire and govern themselves.

The Original 13 Colonies After The Revolutionary War

The Original 13 Colonies after the Revolutionary War
The Original 13 Colonies after the Revolutionary War | Source

Why Did the 13 Colonies Revolt Against England?

Many reasons existed as a rationale for the people of the 13 Colonies of England in the New World to wish to break away from the British empire and govern themselves.

Theorists and historians are still discussing these reasons and adding additional reasons to the list at this time and PhD candidates are still writing their Doctoral Theses on the layers of meaning and interactions among the reasons.

The short version of the reasons that the Colonies revolted are basically issues of taxes and religion:

  • England issued the Stamp Tax against the colonists, requiring them to pay a tax for all printed documents.
  • Next, England enacted the Townshend Acts, requiring colonists to pay taxes on glass, lead, paper, paint and tea. Colonists boycotted and some taxes were lifted.
  • British soldiers and people of Boston who were protesting taxes began to fight and several Bostonians were killed in this, The Boston Massacre. Then England enacted another tea tax and The Sons of Liberty activist group in Boston hijacked a British tea ship and dumped its cargo into the sea at Boston Harbor. This is known as the Boston Tea Party in 1773.
  • England immediately issued the Intolerable Acts, authorizing British officials to take all means necessary to control the Colonies. The Colonists formed the Continental Congress and began to revolt.
  • Another reason for the revolt is that the Colonists did not want The Church of England to be their required church, thus freedom of religion was another issue.

Historic places: A church in the Colony of Virginia.
Historic places: A church in the Colony of Virginia. | Source

© 2007 Patty Inglish MS

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      gabby 

      6 years ago

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      Cindy 

      6 years ago

      This Is Really Good ..I Could See All That Information You Used Good Job

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      Vannessa 

      6 years ago

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      dilly dally 

      6 years ago

      im working on a retake for a quiz that i crashed and burned on and this is sorta helpful but cool bro:D

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      bob 

      6 years ago

      Helped me with a project im doing

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      lil wayne 

      6 years ago

      just like my old flag

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      alicia 

      7 years ago

      i love this info it really helped me

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      pancakes35 

      7 years ago

      nice explain !!!!!

    • profile image

      cube 

      8 years ago

      were do u find info on colonial ships and ship building?

    • profile image

      zachary 

      8 years ago

      This is a lot of help.

    • Marliza Gunter profile image

      Marliza Gunter 

      8 years ago from South Africa

      Very informative...great hub...visit my hubs also..be blessed.. :)

    • Anonemuss profile image

      Anonemuss 

      8 years ago from Belmont, Massachusetts

      Nice Hub, quite informative.

    • profile image

      Cass 

      8 years ago

      Cool info Patty

      Thanks!!

    • Missi Darnell profile image

      Missi Darnell 

      8 years ago from Southern California

      Patty what a fabulous hub! Very informative and interesting reading.

    • profile image

      8 years ago

      hi cool website

    • profile image

      ivannia polo 

      8 years ago

      this is really good job, thanks for this information...

      God bless you!!! bye.

    • profile image

      Amanda H 

      8 years ago

      Wow this is really cool

    • RGraf profile image

      Rebecca Graf 

      8 years ago from Wisconsin

      I love history and this was a great piece. I learned a few new things. For that I thank you.

    • Patty Inglish, MS profile imageAUTHOR

      Patty Inglish MS 

      9 years ago from USA. Member of Asgardia, the first space nation, since October 2016

      Thanks very much for the additions, Taichichuan. Together we find more facts each day for greater knowledge and insight!

    • Taichichuan profile image

      Taichichuan 

      9 years ago

      Great information and easy to read. I'll add one thing : the big stake between the French and the British was the Ohio valley control. For the 13 colonies it was the only exit door towards the continent. The Fort Duquesne (Fort Pitt) was the only one the French built in masonry. All the rest were wooden classical forts.

    • Patty Inglish, MS profile imageAUTHOR

      Patty Inglish MS 

      9 years ago from USA. Member of Asgardia, the first space nation, since October 2016

      Thanks for the comments! I'm learning more every day.

    • bspilner profile image

      bspilner 

      9 years ago from Altanta, Ga.

      You have found something you are knowledgeable and passionate about and have turned it into a great read. Educational and enjoyable! difficult to do with a boring high school topic. You have cut the old 500 page history books into something worth reading and enjoyable.

    • desert blondie profile image

      desert blondie 

      10 years ago from Palm trees, swimming pools, lots of sand, lots of sunscreen

      Continue finding great hubs to explore here at hubpages. I'm off to read second installment. Thanks for background...I'm thinking it must feel pretty "cool" (stronger, more accurate word not coming to mind at the moment) to know you have Native American heritage.

    • Patty Inglish, MS profile imageAUTHOR

      Patty Inglish MS 

      10 years ago from USA. Member of Asgardia, the first space nation, since October 2016

      Thank you for that quote Drax! Hilarious but likely true back in history.

    • Drax profile image

      des donnelly 

      10 years ago from NYC....

      this is great Patty... thanks very much.. Gandhi said if you see fish fighting in a pool the british have been there before you...

      Drax

    • Patty Inglish, MS profile imageAUTHOR

      Patty Inglish MS 

      10 years ago from USA. Member of Asgardia, the first space nation, since October 2016

      I'm learning som e new things myself! :)

    • William F. Torpey profile image

      William F Torpey 

      10 years ago from South Valley Stream, N.Y.

      I'm enjoying this great history. Thanks, Patty.

    • Patty Inglish, MS profile imageAUTHOR

      Patty Inglish MS 

      10 years ago from USA. Member of Asgardia, the first space nation, since October 2016

      Thank You gabriella05. I'm glad you enjoy it.

    • gabriella05 profile image

      gabriella05 

      10 years ago from Oldham

      Another great hub Patty Thank you for the information

    • Patty Inglish, MS profile imageAUTHOR

      Patty Inglish MS 

      10 years ago from USA. Member of Asgardia, the first space nation, since October 2016

      Thanks everyone!

      The internet and its access to univeristy databases around the world really give us a lot of information we did not have before. In school, we were taught that Ohio didn't belong to anyone and US just moved into it and took it. Now I know that we used to be part of Quebec. It is better to know. :)

    • profile image

      Abhinaya 

      10 years ago

      Great info Patty.Only last year my elder son was studying the history,political and relief features of America and I wondered how people were making so much progress.Ohio information is news to me.

    • Zeckeill profile image

      Red Fernan 

      10 years ago from Philippines

      You've got a cool and very informative hub. I like the story of the pilgrims and their journey to establish America. Thanks.

    • Zsuzsy Bee profile image

      Zsuzsy Bee 

      10 years ago from Ontario/Canada

      Patty! Awesome research.

      Great HUB as always

      regards Zsuzsy

    • Wehzo profile image

      Nathaniel Stalling Jr 

      10 years ago from Detroit, MI

      Great hub. You really did you research.

    • Whitney05 profile image

      Whitney 

      10 years ago from Georgia

      Wow very extinsive! Can't wait to find out if theere's going to be a part 3.

    • Aman deep Garg profile image

      Aman deep Garg 

      10 years ago

      Thanks a lot for sharing this information with us.Do visit my hub.

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