Where was Gaul?
What was Gaul?
Throughout the history of the Roman state there were several persistent enemies of the Romans. Chief among the enemies of Rome were the Gauls. Gauls are Celtic people from central and western Europe that conquered vast swathes of land and plagued the Roman world.
The Gauls had an advanced society with coinage, iron working, and a unifying culture. They did not have a singular government. Each Gallic tribe ruled it's own tribal lands and had it's own rulers, but the Gauls united under several confederations in the face of Roman invasions. Gallic tribes settled from modern Belgium to Spain, and they had kingdoms from modern France to Anatolia.
Ancient Gaul covered a much greater area than the country of France. The first area to be conquered by the Roman Republic was name Cisalpine Gaul. It was composed of all the territory occupied by the Gauls in northern Italy that was on the Italian side of the Alps.
Gauls had occupied northern Italy after a series of wars with the Etruscans and Romans. Cisalpine Gauls even managed to sack Rome in 390 BC. The sack of Rome would be the high point of the military success of the Cisalpine Gauls, and from 290 BC to 190 BC the Cisalpine tribes were conquered by the Roman Republic and their lands turned into a Roman province.
Transalpine Gaul was the territory occupied by Gauls along the Mediterranean coast on the far side of the Italian. It would have primarily been areas around what is southern France stretching from Italy to Spain.
was conquered by the Romans in 121 BC for several reasons. By this time Rome had territory in Spain and lucrative trading ports along the coast that they needed to connect to Italy. To achieve an easy and safe route to Hispania the Roman Republic made a deal with the city-state of Marseille and drove the Celtic tribes off the Mediterranean coast.
Rome was able to build a road from Italy to Hispania as a result of their victory as well as building several cities to prevent any further Gallic incursions from central France. This had the effect of making the Gallic tribes work towards greater confederation as well as fueling massive support for Hannibal's invasion of Italy. There were around fifty-thousand Gallic warriors supporting Hannibal's army in Italy throughout the campaign.
Gallia Comata was the Roman designation for the rest of Gaul in western Europe. It contained the modern states of France, Belgium, Luxemburg and Germany west of the Rhine. These regions were some of the least Romanized areas of the Roman world. The Celtic tribes in Gallia Comata were far more resistant to the cultural changes wrought by the Romans and they were the most unified against Roman rule.
Rome was granted a way into Gaul when the Helvetica, a Gallic tribe from modern Switzerland, began to invade Gaul. Julius Caesar led his armies into Gaul to protect Roman allied tribes and conquered most of the country while doing so. When it appeared the Romans were going to occupy Gaul many of the Gallic tribes betrayed Caesar and joined a massive uprising under Vercingetorix. Caesar repressed the Gallic revolt in his Gallic Wars from 58 BC to 52 BC.
Gaul after the Roman Conquest
Caesar's conquests destroyed the Gallic kingdoms in Europe. It is estimated that one in five Gauls died during Caesar's conquest, and many more were enslaved. After Caesars conquest the only remaining Gallic kingdom was in Gallicia, in eastern Anatolia. This area was absorbed into the Roman Empire under Caesar Augustus.
Rome and Gaul had an intertwined fate due to proximity and history. Roman conquest destroyed the Gallic tribal system, but those Gauls who survived the Roman invasion maintained some parts of their culture. Roman Gaul was a unique area that became the heart of the Western Roman Empire through taxation and recruitment for the army.
The conquest of Gaul changed Rome as much as it changed Gaul. Senators and Equestrians came from Gallic territories. Generals like Caesar, Constantine, and Marc Antony all made their fortunes and armies in Gaul.