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How to Identify the Artist and Age of Your Painting
A Portrait of the Artist, John French Sloan, identified from a gallery label
So you have this old picture, and you're not sure who it's by. The right name could make all the difference at auction, but just how do you find out who painted your item—and were they famous?
If you are reading this article, you may have recently acquired a picture that you want to know more about, or you might have suddenly become curious about a painting that you, or your family, have owned for some time. Whatever the reason, you are now looking for information, and a quick guide to how to find it. With this in mind, I have set out a sequence of steps that you need to take to identify your artist, and to help you understand a little more about your picture. It may well be that you fail to find a definite answer, but don't be discouraged. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder, and there are many uniquely wonderful works of art that are created by amateur artists whose names will never feature in an auction catalogue or a museum inventory. If you love your painting, then it's likely that others will too, and a beautiful item will nearly always find a buyer, even if it isn't by a famous artist.
When attempting to discover the value of your art there are many questions to consider.
These questions include:
- How do you find out who painted your item?
- What does it mean that my painting has a signature that I can read?
- What does it mean that my picture has initials for a signature?
- Is my painting an original, or Is It a print?
- My painting isn't old, but might It still be worth something?
- My picture has a signature, but could it be a forgery?
- How do I sell my painting?
My Painting Has a Signature That I Can Read Easily
A clear signature is extremely helpful when it comes to picture research. If your artist is fairly well known you may be able to find him or her simply by keying the name into your search engine followed by the word 'painting'. This will be very straightforward if you are lucky enough to own a Renoir, a Remington or a Rembrandt, but there are, however, lots of lesser known artists who have their own pages in Wikipedia, or even have their own web-sites.
If this simple approach draws a blank, then consider using the (free) artist listings in the websites shown under 'Resources' shown at the end of the article. These will not give you vast amounts of information, but if your artist appears on these lists you can be sure that their work has either been sold at auction, or is part of a gallery, or dealer's inventory. The websites I've listed all have access to prices achieved at auction, and that is exactly what you need to know in order to get a rough valuation of your painting. Unfortunately most of these web-sites know that's what you need, and they make a charge for that information. It's up to you to decide whether you want to pay for a 24 hour membership, or whether you want to investigate the no-charge websites first.
- Bidsquare.com . Both sites allow you to access an amazing amount of information for free once you have signed up.
- Public Catalogue Foundation's Paintings web-site. This site has high quality images and good information about over 2,000 paintings in public ownership in the UK. The artists represented are from across the globe, so don't be put off by the fact that it is a UK based site. If you have a painting, and suspect that you know the artist, you can quickly compare your style of painting with those on this web-site.
Signature of Pablo Picasso
My Picture Has Initials for a Signature
Lots of artists, including some really famous ones, sign their paintings with their initials. Sometimes these are stylized into a monogram, but usually it is just letters and dots. This isn't too big a problem if you have a fabulous work of art done in an instantly recognizable style, but the vast majority of paintings are not so easy to identify. So where to start? This is where some real detective work comes in.
First of all, you can attempt to track the picture back. If it is a family heirloom you will have some clues as to it's origins. When was it bought? Who bought it, and where did it come from? Next, look for clues in the actual painting. What is the subject matter? If it is a landscape, can you identify the scene? If it is a portrait, can you identify the sitter? Are there any gallery labels, or framer's labels on the reverse? Are there numbers written anywhere on the frame?
If you have a gallery label, or a framer's label, you immediately have a potential source of information. If the gallery or framer is still in business, contact them, and ask if they can identify the artist. If you have numbers chalked on the frame, it is likely that the picture has been through auction at some point, and if there is an auction house mark or label on the frame, you have another place to check. Auction marks are generally a very good indication that the picture has some value.
Finally, when you have exhausted all of the above options, there is always a painstaking search through the artist's listings to consider. Of course this won't be a problem if your artist has unusual initials such as Z.Z., but you're probably not going to be that lucky! At this point you might consider looking at a dictionary of artists signatures and monograms. There are a number of these published, and sometimes local libraries carry a copy in their reference section. If you have several paintings to research, or if you often have old paintings through your hands, you might consider actually buying a reference book for yourself, as they are frequently more helpful than the on-line versions currently available. However, if you prefer to research using your computer, an on-line resource is available at www.identifyartistsignatures.com which has lots of free information. www.artistssignatures.com. also gives you limited (free) access to signatures and monograms, but it is also possible to buy time on the site for more in-depth research. www.Artprice.com has a similar on-line facility, and again you must pay to use it. Finally, you might try the WikiCommons web-site which has a very limited collection of artists signatures available to view at no cost whatsoever.
Is My Painting an Original, or Is It a Print?
There are probably millions of prints and reproductions of paintings in circulation today, and some of these prints are so good that it is very difficult to identify the copy from an original. One easy clue, however, is to examine the surface of your picture through a magnifying glass or jewellers loupe. If the surface is comprised of thousands of tiny, uniform dots, then it is definitely a print. Labels on the back of your picture might also provide information. Words such as 'reproduction', 'edition' or the name of a museum, such as 'The Museum of Modern Art, New York', or 'Musee d'Orsay, Paris' are all definite hints that your item is one of many copies. If you have an actual title and an artist written on the label you can also try typing the details into the search engine to see if an image of your picture comes up.
Prints from a famous original are unlikely to have a big label price tag. In fact, unless the frame is exceptionally good, most mass produced reproductions tend to have a relatively low re-sale value. I have written about prints and etchings in more detail in an article that you can find by clicking here.
Some modern prints have become collectible in recent times, and this is usually the result of clever marketing, or very limited edition print runs. A good example of modern prints having clever marketing are the American Hargrove prints, which have a certain folksy charm, and often re-sell for quite surprising amounts considering the quantities that have been produced. A quick search on ebay will give you some idea.
Signed limited edition prints where the picture is of high quality, and has been hand-signed by the artist will often, also make quite good prices at auction. A good example of such an artist is the wildlife artist, David Shepherd. You will know if your print is a limited edition because it will be numbered, probably on the front, next to the hand-written signature. It might say 36/100 for example, and this means that it is the 36th print out of an edition of 100. If only 100 prints from an original exist, then it makes sense that these will have a higher value than prints that exist in their thousands!
Monogram of Albrecht Durer
My Painting Isn't Old, but Might It Still Be Worth Something?
There are quite a number of contemporary (modern day) artists who are either only recently deceased, or else still very much alive, who have achieved every artist's dream of becoming successful in their own lifetime. The internet has had a great part to play in this, as it has never been so easy to get your work 'out there' as it is today. Some of our great contemporary artists have come from nowhere to being highly collectible in just a few short years. Many of these artists have dedicated web-sites with gallery space that you can easily access, such as Jack Vettriano, Fred Yates, Frank Beanland, Del-Bourree Bach., and the renowned equestrian artist, Susan Crawford. Never assume that your picture needs to be an antique to be valuable!
If you are lucky enough to have a work by one of these up and coming artists, you can easily research their recent auction prices on-line at Mearto.com. Living artists will sometimes buy back earlier work, and it can often be worth approaching the artist, or his or her designated art dealer, before placing a picture into auction.
My Picture Has a Signature, but Could It Be a Forgery?
There are many, many high quality art forgeries in circulation, as well as innumerable copies of famous works. The difference between a copy and a forgery is that the copy is not pretending to be the real deal. A forgery only becomes a forgery when there is an attempt to deceive. There are many good copies around that do not have the finish and presentation of the original artworks, nor, most importantly, are they signed as though they were by the original artist. Often a copyist will sign with his or her own name. Some copyists make a living out of unashamedly reproducing great works of art on a commission basis.
Good forgeries can be harder to spot, especially as many of them can be hundreds of years old. Yes folks, forgery is not a new idea! When it comes to a genuinely valuable work of art, it is likely that a potential buyer will require some kind of provenance, so that its ownership can be traced back. Lesser value items, however, are more likely to be taken on face value.
If you think you have a picture that might be a fake, look at the quality of the brush strokes, and the colour of the paint. Does it appear to be far more recent than the artist's dates would indicate? If the artist is supposed to have died more than 50 years ago, it is unlikely that the painting will smell of fresh oil paint, and be completely free of damage or any kind of discolouration. Forgeries can be very hard to spot, and it takes an expert on a given artist to give a definitive answer. If you do have a painting that you believe to be a very high value item, it is worth having it authenticated. Ideally this can be done before you enter the painting for auction, but high end auctioneers have a lot of contacts, and may well be able to steer you in the right direction.
How do I sell my painting?
The vast majority of paintings have relatively low re-sale values. Many are by amateur artists whose output has been so low that no one has paid attention to them. These artists might be fantastically skilled and turn out paintings of exceptional quality, but there will always be a ceiling on their value, which is a great pity. Other pictures, however, might be relatively unattractive, yet they will attract buyers just because they were painted by a 'listed' artist. Whenever you are buying art, choose work that you love, and can easily live with. Some art is regarded as an investment, but personally I'd just as soon enjoy what's hanging on my walls!
As to selling your painting, there are any number of ways to go about it. Here are a few:
1. Auction House This is an ideal way to market an old painting, or a painting by a well-known artist. Search the internet for antiques and collectibles auction houses in your area, then contact them to find out whether they specialise in art. Most auction houses will give you a rough estimate of what the item is likely to sell for. Good auctioneers will also ensure that you achieve the best price by advertising on the internet and in the trade press, and also by advising any contacts that have a particular interest in what you have to offer. The commission fee is likely to be between 10% and 20% of the sale price. There may be a fee for unsold items.
2. Selling to a dealer or a gallery The advantage of selling in this way is that the transaction is completed swiftly. You can haggle to try to achieve the best price, and nobody will force you to sell if you aren't happy with the price offered. Always remember that the dealer or gallery has a profit to make, so they will never give you top dollar for your item.
3. Ebay or Amazon Marketplace This is not necessarily the best route to take, as you will have to build in reasonable shipping costs. Paintings that are behind glass tend to be heavy, and are not easy to transport. There is always the buyer collects option, however.
4. Yard Sale, Garage sale, Boot Sale These are all excellent ways to sell unwanted items. If you have thoroughly researched your picture, and have decided to sell at any price, then this is as good a route as any.
Some extra advice
This article has been written in good faith, but it does not constitute a valuation or appraisal. I do not offer an appraisal or valuation service, but I do hope that the information given here will assist you in discovering more about your art.
The Copyright of this article belongs to Amanda Severn.
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