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World War II Spy Rings in Latin America

Updated on October 15, 2012

Osorno Volcano taken from the Petrohue Falls

The Osorno Volcano placed at the heart of Nazi activity in Chile
The Osorno Volcano placed at the heart of Nazi activity in Chile | Source

Admiral Canaris of the Nazi Abwehr

Admiral Canaris, the brains behind the Nazi spy rings
Admiral Canaris, the brains behind the Nazi spy rings | Source

Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, Head of the Nazi Abwehr

In previous articles, I have been writing about events in World War One that took place near the southern coasts of Chile and Argentina.

In the most recent of these, I related the adventures of Lieutenant Wilhelm Canaris, the intelligence officer of the SMS Dresden, including his epic escape from the Talcahuano Naval Base, where he was interned by the Chilean government, and his trip down south to Osorno, and then over the Andes into Argentina, and so on home to Germany.

After a successful career in the German Navy, Canaris became head of the Abwehr Military Intelligence Unit in 1935. He therefore had access, together with his various subordinates, to all the information related to the very active spy rings that sprang up in various Latin American countries, as WW2 entered its more active phases.

These Spy Rings and Intelligence Activities, Important Elements in WW2?

Numerous writers and historians consider both the German intelligence efforts and the Allies’ counterintelligence measures in Latin America, to be important enough to merit substantial research in post war years.

In his memoirs, Winston Churchill wrote “….dominating all our power to carry on the war, or even keep ourselves alive, lay our mastery of the ocean routes and the free approach and entry to our ports”.

The weakest link in Great Britain’s military strength was the dependency upon the Empire and the Western Hemisphere for vital raw materials, foodstuff, and equipment. Thus, British maritime commerce was the very life-blood of the British Isles. The German naval authorities were very aware of this fact, and made every effort to disrupt Britain’s shipping and maritime communications.

For these activities to succeed, it was vital for the German intelligence force to have accurate information on ship movements, and a high quantity of maritime commerce involved the South American countries of Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The success in sinking Allied shipping in the southern Pacific and the North and South Atlantic during the first two years of the war was a direct result of Admiral Canaris’ superb organization in the Abwehr, supported in part by his own experience and knowledge of the countries involved.

Map of South America

The map shows the relative position of the countries where spy rings were active during WW2
The map shows the relative position of the countries where spy rings were active during WW2 | Source

Brazil declares War on Germany.

Newspaper showing headlines: Brazil declares war!
Newspaper showing headlines: Brazil declares war! | Source

Brazilian Naval Action during WW2

Brazilian Navy using depth charges aimed at U-boats
Brazilian Navy using depth charges aimed at U-boats | Source

Brazil's Contribution to the War Effort

Brazil held a strategic importance to both side during WW2, due to its geographic position relatively near the West coast of Africa and the natural products that were its main exports: rubber, cotton, diamonds and platinum, as well as iron ore, manganese, quartz, and nut oils.

The country also boasted a large German population, and in years prior to the outbreak of the war, had been the target for intense development of commercial relations with companies located in Germany. In fact, Brazil became Germany’s leading trade partner after 1934, and in 1937-1938 the Brazilian government signed large armament contracts with Krupp.

As a consequence of the above, Brazil became an important theater of clandestine activity, especially since Berlin regarded Brazil as a basically friendly country.

Another factor that influenced the organization of strong clandestine networks was the technical discovery that radio communication was much easier in a North-South direction, than in an East-West direction. In other words, it was easier to transmit from South America to Germany, than it was to send radio messages from the United States to Europe.

Consequently, the Brazilian spy rings flourished, complete with clandestine radios, invisible ink, and the Mikropunkt or microdot, developed by the Institute of Technology in Dresden.

The President-dictator of Brazil, Getulio Vargas, a very wily politician, was able to play both sides against the other for several years, until finally coming in on the side of the Allies and declaring war on the Axis after German submarines sunk several Brazilian merchant ships, killing hundreds of Brazilian nationals. From 1944 onwards, Brazil actually had troops and a flight squadron operating on European soil.

The spy rings were finally broken and disbanded, as it was a very different matter to carry out clandestine activities within a country that was actively at war.

Argentina's Casa Rosada

The Casa Rosada, where all the important decisions were taken.
The Casa Rosada, where all the important decisions were taken. | Source

The Position taken by Argentina during WW2

During the period that corresponds to WW2, the political situation in Argentina was rather chaotic, with several coups and leadership changes. The style of government was basically dictatorial and conservative. This is also reflected in this country’s position towards the belligerent forces.

On the one hand, Argentina’s population, made up principally of Italian, Spanish and German immigrants, gave the country a definite pro Axis profile.

On the other hand, the country’s commercial ties were firmly committed to Britain.

As a result, during most of the war, Argentina loudly proclaimed her neutrality, and happily sold vital products to both sides. The main exports were meat and wheat, two products that were vital for Britain’s survival during the crucial months after the fall of France.

This background allowed the spy rings to flourish practically undisturbed, and to engineer the dispatch of many critical secret documents through the Spanish diplomats that resided in Buenos Aires. It must be remembered that Spain, under Francisco Franco at that time, was definitely pro Axis and also maintained much trumpeted “neutrality”. One of these secret documents referred to the plans and disposition of the defenses on the Panama Canal, that were obtained from American sources, transferred through Ecuador to Chile, and then on to Argentina and subsequently, to Spain.

Argentina finally declared war on Germany in March, 1945. Italy was no longer a member of the Axis at that date.

Osorno Volcano at the heart of the German communities in Chile

Osorno Volcano, a symbol of German activity in the south of Chile
Osorno Volcano, a symbol of German activity in the south of Chile | Source

And what about Chile during WW2?

Last but not least we will refer to Chile’s role during this period. It is no secret that Chile defended her neutrality throughout most of the war. The reasons for this policy of neutrality are various:

  • The country had a large German population living in the southern region between Valdivia and Puerto Montt.
  • These descendants from the original German settlers who had opened up the countryside in that area, were considered Chilean nationals and voted at every official election.
  • The political situation was extremely delicate in the crucial period at the end of 1941 and beginning of 1942, due to the untimely death of the President, Pedro Aguirre, while still in office. The result of the next Presidential elections was very uncertain, and the incumbent party could not risk alienating the German votes, especially as the opposing candidate, an army officer, was receiving financial help from the Axis for his campaign.
  • The pressure brought to bear by the USA after Pearl Harbor, was not welcome, due to the ongoing diplomatic friction between Chile and the US.
  • The Chilean army had been trained by German officers, and had received important quantities of German weapons and equipment, that would eventually need technical maintenance and replacements.
  • The Navy, very pro-British, could not defend Chile’s extended coast line with its fjords and channels in the extreme south, and its far off island possessions. A high percentage of the Chilean population lives near the coast and it was feared that the coastal localities could be attacked by Axis submarines, especially after Japan entered the war.
  • Chile depended to a high degree on her maritime commerce, and it was thought that by remaining neutral, there was a higher possibility of commercial shipping being able to navigate unmolested. Of special significance was the transport of copper, which Chile produced in abundance.

Port of Valdivia

The Port of Valdivia, where the German influence is strong
The Port of Valdivia, where the German influence is strong | Source

Puerto Varas, in the vicinity of Osorno

Puerto Varas on the llanquihue Lake, has a very German profile
Puerto Varas on the llanquihue Lake, has a very German profile | Source

Chilean Spy Rings

There were several very active rings, well equipped with clandestine radios, radio operators and many contacts in the German consular network, the German Embassy and with the strongly Nazi oriented population in the southern provinces. The towns of Valdivia and Osorno were especially active.

Now that both the USA and Great Britain have declassified many of the official documents pertaining to the WW2 years, it is possible to highlight some interesting facts.

The Admiral Graf Spee is scuttled on the River Plate

The Pocket Battleship Admiral Graf Spee sinks in flames after scuttling.
The Pocket Battleship Admiral Graf Spee sinks in flames after scuttling. | Source

False Passports for German Nationals

During the first months of the war, in December 1939, the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee was cornered by three British ships, HMS Exeter, HMS Ajax and HMNZS Achilles at the entrance to the River Plate, opposite Montevideo. This naval action is now known as “the Battle of the River Plate”.

As a result, the German ship Admiral von Spee was scuttled, and its crew of about 1,000 German nationals were interned in Argentina for the duration of the war.

Several members of the crew escaped from the detention centers, made their way to Bariloche near the border and crossed over the Andes into Chile, arriving in Osorno, where they received help to continue on their trip north to Valparaiso. There they were provided with false passports obtained by the German consul-general in that city, so they could continue to Europe and there rejoin the German navy.

This produced a controversy in Chilean official circles that lasted for several months until the diplomat in question was recalled.

It is also interesting to note that this group of escapees repeated practically the same route followed by Wilhelm Canaris during WW1, but in reverse order!

The Osorno region with the Cardenal Samore Pass

The pass used to cross the Andes and enter Osorno
The pass used to cross the Andes and enter Osorno | Source

The Puyehue Pass, now called Cardenal Samore Pass

The Puyehue Pass near Osorno, now called Cardenal Samore Pass, in Winter
The Puyehue Pass near Osorno, now called Cardenal Samore Pass, in Winter | Source

Expansion of the German Diplomatic Corps in Chile during the Nazi Period

According to American FBI reports, the German diplomatic corps in Chile engaged in numerous questionable activities, from the manipulation of media to espionage. It is significant to note that by 1942 Nazi Germany had a really large diplomatic and consular staff installed in Chile, out of all proportion to the actual size and population of the host country. There was an embassy in Santiago, a consulate-general in Valparaiso, seven consulates (Antofagasta, Concepcion, Iquique, Punta Arenas, Santiago, Temuco and Valdivia), seven vice-consulates (Arica, Caldera, Corral, Coquimbo, Osorno, Puerto Montt and Talcahuano), and a consular agency. All this enormous display was set up in a country with just over 5 million inhabitants! In addition, most of these posts had opened during the Nazi years, from 1936 onwards, that is even before the actual start of the hostilities.

The Port of Valparaiso

Radio PYL transmitted near the Port of Valparaiso
Radio PYL transmitted near the Port of Valparaiso | Source

The Clandestine Radios

Again according to FBI reports, Abwehr agents in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, reported to Hamburg from bases within these countries.

The principal source of messages from Chile was the clandestine radio transmitter identified as PYL, located at Quilpué, near Valparaiso and headed by Albert von Appen a.k.a. “Apfel”, a card-carrying Nazi since 1933. Another collaborator of PYL was Ludwig von Bohlen a.k.a. “Bach”, an attaché at the German embassy in Santiago. Some reports name “Bach” as the real leader of the PYL group and the subsequent PQZ group that worked closely with PYL and continued the work after the PYL group’s radio was silenced by the Chilean police.

Some Conclusions

There can be no doubt that during World War Two a lot of Nazi activity took place in the various Latin American countries. There was also some real danger to the maritime communications in the Western Hemisphere, especially due to the vulnerability of the Panama Canal installations. If these had been sabotaged, all traffic would once again have had to revert to the southern passages and channels, and these were controlled by two “neutral” states, Chile and Argentina.

Another point of interest was the abundance of natural resources in this part of the world, several of which were indispensable to the war effort. These products had to be transported by sea, and were therefore open to submarine attacks.

These two aspects alone can justify the zealousness of both the Nazi spy rings and the counter-espionage efforts that were organized by the Allies.

The Strategically Important Navigation Channels

The extreme south of the continent, an important maritime roadway
The extreme south of the continent, an important maritime roadway | Source

What about the Allied Counter Espionage?

Well, that’s another story, which I will write about from a purely personal perspective, as it involved the participation of a close member of my family, my father.

Stick around, you might find it interesting!

© 2012 joanveronica (Joan Robertson)

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    • MrMaranatha profile image

      MrMaranatha 4 years ago from Somewhere in the third world.

      Love History

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 4 years ago from Olympia, WA

      I always find your hubs fascinating. You have done a terrific job of research on this one and it is beautifully laid out...visually very attractive plus downright intellectual. :) Great job my friend!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, MrMaranatha, thank you for visiting and leaving a comment, don't forget there are articles that are previous to this present one, maybe you would like them too!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi billybuc, thank you so much for your lovely comment! This one was a tough one to put together, the information is all over the place, and a lot of it is contradictory. I was lucky in the fact that I grew up with some of these facts, that helped a lot to find a structure for the article. Your comment has made me very happy, thank you once again!

    • MrMaranatha profile image

      MrMaranatha 4 years ago from Somewhere in the third world.

      I love history.. But I have a allot to read all of the time.. and Hub Pages time is on a leash :-) I am currently preparing classes for advanced ESL Students... :-P

    • Jools99 profile image

      Jools99 4 years ago from North-East UK

      joanveronica, this was such an interesting read. I had no idea that South America was so involved during WW2, even in covert ways. It is strange to note the good relationship between Britain and Argentina, given more recent events. The escape through the Andes of POWs was extremely brave too - amazing to think they made it.

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Jools, thanks for the visit and the comment! The ways and procedures of our South American countries are indeed involved, but also very interesting. Good reads too! Maybe I could suggest you follow the links back through this series of articles? I think you would find my other hubs interesting also! They are all placed in this part of the world, but related to world events, and usually little known.

    • Jools99 profile image

      Jools99 4 years ago from North-East UK

      joanveronica, I will seek them out and read more. I have become very, very interested in WW2 since I decided to do some research a few weeks ago - it has led me down so many previously unexplored avenues; I am really enjoying learning more about it.

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, nice to read this last comment! Especially as you write from UK. Don't forget that WW2 really started with WW1, they are difficult to separate! Have a good read!

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      IntegrityYes 4 years ago

      WHOA! That is so useful and good. I definitely voted up. OOH,Joan! HAH-HAH!

    • UnnamedHarald profile image

      David Hunt 4 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

      Simply awesome. So full of information I was unaware of-- from the fact that longitudenal advantage of radio waves over latitutenal to the codesyl re the scuttling of the Graf Spee. Way to go, joan. Voted up, awesome, shared.

    • John Sarkis profile image

      John Sarkis 4 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

      Hi joanveronica, and what a great hub this is.

      Yes, I'm aware of much of this. Additionally, most people think the USA has (or had---I think things have changed since this census was done) the majority of whites in the Americas, but Argentina has a higher percentage of whites---many of whom are of German, English and Italian background.

      Take care - voted up

      John

      PS. thanks for sharing UnnamedHarald

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi IntegrityYes, it was nice to have you visit my article, and be so enthusiastic about it! Thanks for the comment! Be happy!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, UH, I was wondering if you'd come by! Such praise from you is praise indeed! Your comment is greatly appreciated, and thanks for the share! Don't forget there will be a "next" installment! Be happy!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, John, it's good to hear from you again! your comment is much appreciated, as you say, this part of the world is familiar to you, therefore your praise is of value to me as coming from one who knows the background. The article was fun to write, but rather difficult, because the information is all very contradictory. Still I got it done, finally! Have a good day and be happy!

    • MPChris profile image

      MPChris 4 years ago from Atlanta, GA

      Count me as a fan! I knew about the German Nationals in Argentina, but not in Chile! Its very interesting to see how much of a diplomatic/extra activities presence was available in Chile by the Germans.

    • Gypsy Rose Lee profile image

      Gypsy Rose Lee 4 years ago from Riga, Latvia

      Voted up and interesting. Thanks so much for a very informative and fascinating hub. Love history and these things I didn't know. Great pics. Passing this on.

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi MPChris, nice to have you visit my article! I'm so glad you enjoyed it, it was fun to write, but rather difficult, as the information is a bit confusing. Yes indeed, Germans were very active in Chile! Thanks for the comment and the follow, and I would like to remind you that this present article is the fifth in a series, that started with the battle of Coronel, maybe you would enjoy the others also, just follow the links!

      Have a good day and be happy!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Gipsy, so glad to have you visit! I'm really happy you liked it, I put a lot of effort into it! There are several other article in this series that you might like also. Thanks for the comment and the share! Have a good day and be happy!

    • teaches12345 profile image

      Dianna Mendez 4 years ago

      I felt like I was on a national geographic tour and history lesson -- great job! Very interesting to read about these spy rings. Voted up.

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, teache, glad to have you visit my article and thank you for the lovely comment, that is praise indeed! have a good day and be happy!

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      Susana 4 years ago

      How fascinating it is to think about spies!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Susana, thanks for the comment and the visit! I'm glad you liked this article!

    • rlbert00 profile image

      rlbert00 4 years ago from USA

      I'm not sure how I missed this one but unfortunately I did, fortunately I have found it now. What a fantastic article, I sometimes forget that World War Two was truly a world war, in every sense of the word. You make an excellent case as to why Chile maintained their neutrality, one that would be very difficult to disagree with. As usual I enjoyed your wonderful photo selections, nicely done.

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, ribertoo, nice to have you back! Your comment is very welcome, you always seem to add something extra. This time, it was valuable for me to hear what a relative outsider had to say about it all. Even considering that you are familiar with a lot of Chilean reality, it was still very valuable for me. Also, this article was meant as a prelude to the two that followed about counter espionage, the one without the other wouldn't have made much sense. So, on to the next effort, which will be published soon! Have a good day!

    • ThoughtSandwiches profile image

      ThoughtSandwiches 4 years ago from Reno, Nevada

      Joan,

      You truly have your finger on the pulse of wartime activity on South America! Excellent research and writing here and the visual displays are outstanding.

      I'm looking forward to reading about your family's role in the Allied counter-intelligence moves.

      Excellent job!

      Thomas

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, nice of you to visit and to leave such a wonderful comment! I'm so glad you liked the article, it was a tough one to write! The information is all over the place, and in researching you find yourself going round in circles. About the counter espionage, both articles are published. The topic provided for two articles that are really first and second parts, so have a good read! I hope to hear about your opinions, too!

    • Vinaya Ghimire profile image

      Vinaya Ghimire 4 years ago from Nepal

      Interesting peak into World war history. I have read about World War in Europe, but know nothing about South America. Thanks for sharing your knowledge.

      PS: thanks for pinning my hub.

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Vinaya, so nice to have you visit my article! I'm glad you liked it, it was fun to write, I have always found this subject fascinating! Thank you for the visit and the comment, and have a good day!

    • tammyswallow profile image

      Tammy 4 years ago from North Carolina

      Wow, that is one fabulous, informative, well researched Hub! I didn't realize that there was so much going on in South American during the war. I learned so much here. Excellent work!

    • lindacee profile image

      lindacee 4 years ago from Arizona

      Fascinating read! Your Hub caught my eye as I lived in Uruguay for 3 years. It's an interesting part of the world and I enjoyed reading about S.A.'s involvement during the war. Well done!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Tammy, lovely to have you read my Hub! Thank you so much for your interest and the comment, it's very motivating. Maybe you would be interested in the Hubs that come after, related to British counter espionage in Chile? This is where my family particpates!Have a good day!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi lindacee, I'm so glad you enjoyed this Hub and were able to relate it to your stay in Uruguay! I have another article about the Battle of the River Plate, that refers to Uruguay a lot, maybe you would like to read it?

      In the meantimw, thank you for your visit and the comment, and have a nice day!

    • lindacee profile image

      lindacee 4 years ago from Arizona

      Joan, I was going to mention the Rio Plata. I will check out that Hub as well! Thanks!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Oh good, you got my comment! Have a fine read, the article has photos of Uruguay and of the ships, etc. Let me know if you like it! I'm always happy to receive feedback and opinions. Have a good day!

    • midget38 profile image

      Michelle Liew 4 years ago from Singapore

      Joan, nice to connect with a fellow history lover!! War is really about who wins the greatest advantage....and you've furnished us with details we didn't know about! Thanks so much!

    • Wesley Meacham profile image

      Wesley Meacham 4 years ago from Wuhan, China

      great hub. I'd no idea that South America was so important in WW2. Voted up and sharing.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi midget 38, I seem to have missed your comment! So thanks for the visit and the comment (better late than never!), it's nice to know that lots of people love history, and that you liked this Hub. I see myself as a "storyteller" certainly not a historian, but it's fun and I enjoy it! Have a good day!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Wesley, thank you so much for the visit, the comment and the share! I really appreciate it. I'm so glad you liked this hub, it's one of my favorites. And yes, South America was very important, both in WW1 and in WW2. I'm happy to be able to communicate this topic to other people! Have a good day, and thanks once again!

    • Paul Kuehn profile image

      Paul Richard Kuehn 4 years ago from Udorn City, Thailand

      Joanveronica,

      This is a great hub and also extremely interesting. When I studied World War II as part of U.S. history in high school and college in the 50s and 60s, I never could find information like this in textbooks and professors never talked about. This information is fascinating and I have learned a lot. I really look forward to reading about your father's experiences during the War. Voted up and sharing with followers on Facebook, and Pinning.

    • MG Singh profile image

      MG Singh 4 years ago from Singapore

      This made very interesting reading. Voted up

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Paul, thanks so much for your visit and your comment! You are right about the lack of information, most of it was still classified until not so long ago! I knew about several aspects due to my father working in counter espionage, as I have related in the two Hubs that follow this one. Please do read them and enjoy, they are really interesting! Thanks for the vote, and especially for the share! Have a good day!

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi MG, thank you so much for the visit and the comment, I'm glad you liked this article, it was fun to research and to write. My father worked in counter espionage, so this was doubly interesting for me! I learnt a lot while doing the research, that period was certainly fascinating.

    • sunilkunnoth2012 profile image

      Sunil Kumar Kunnoth 4 years ago from Calicut (Kozhikode, South India)

      You are doing an excellent job with hard work and research. I too love history and wish to read your hubs related to History. Thank you for sharing your knowledge for the common benefit of readers. Voted up.

    • joanveronica profile image
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      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi sunilkunnoth2012, many thanks for your visit and your comment! I really appreciate your remark about the "hard work", because these articles are not easy to organize and produce. So thanks again, and have a good day!

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      Serg 2 years ago

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