- Education and Science
A world without Romania | Do you think you know everything? Read this!
Do you know anything about Romania? What if I'll tell you that Romania isn't the country you know?
Do you know where Romania is? What Romania is?
WHY SHOULD I CARE ABOUT THIS? You will tell me. And I will show you why, but first, let me tell you what Romania isn't about!
It's not about gypsies, it's not about beggars, it's not about corruption and it's not about dirt.
I think all of you know the existence of Gypsies. Well they are the pickpockets of country, but are worst when they go in other countries like France, Spain, Italy etc. and they beg for money. The local authorities ask them about nationality and they say "From Romania" so that's why still this misconception about how really Romania is exists.
BUT WAIT! This isn't what I wanted to talk you about. You're probably wondering already what this lens is about.
Do you want to know why should you care about Romania? You should care because Romania is where many inventors were born and without which the world would have looked different today. I bet you didn't know that!
NEXT, I will show you Romanian inventions, TRUE FACTS and people you had no idea were born in... Romania!
The Fountain Pen Inventor: Petrache Poenaru - Try to imagine writing your entire life with only a pencil. Not so convenient, is it?
Petrache Poenaru (1799-1875) had studied in Paris, Vienna and completed his specialized studies in England. He was a mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, teacher and organizer of the educational system, politician, agronomist and zootechnologist, founder of the Philharmonic Society, the Botanical Gardens and the National Museum of Antiquities in Bucharest.
In 1824, Poenaru had to return to the country after the studies ended and share his acquired knowledge as a teacher.
In 1826 he went to France to attend Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, where he studied Geodesy and Surveying. He was so busy taking notes and copying courses, that invented a writing tool which allowed him to save time. This was the fountain pen, presently used by millions of people around the world.
On the 27th of May 1827, the Manufacture Department from the French Ministry of Interior registered Poenaru's invention with the code 3208 and the description "plume portable sans fin, qui s'alimente elle-meme avec de l'ancre" (never-ending portable pen, which recharges itself with ink). This invention prevented paper scratches, ink leaks and was made of replaceable parts.
TRUE FACTS ABOUT THE INVENTOR OF THE FOUNTAIN PEN:
He was the inventor of the current tricolor flag of Romania.
He was the first Romanian that traveled by train.
He put the foundation of the first Romanian newspaper.
He was outlaw in his youth.
He was member of the Romanian Academy in 1870.
He was founder of the National College in Bucharest and Craiova.
He organized Romanian national education.
Most of the people asked about who invented the fountain pen will say Lewis Waterman.
Did you know who the inventor of the fountain pen was?
Father of Modern Cybernetics: Stefan Odobleja
Dr Stefan Odobleja, another important Romanian scientist is known as the father of cybernetics. Practicaly he is the inventor of the modern cybernetics.
Despite poverty stricken and, in some ways, a difficult life, he managed to remain productive. His completed works in cybernetics run to over 50,000 pages.
Cybernetics is the theory of control by retroaction. The term has spread especially related to digital systems, but the field is much wider: cybernetics deals with how a system (digital, mechanical, biological) processes information and reacts to these, also is interested in how cyber-based systems allow changes or modifications to optimize their actions. Stefan Odobleja doctor, creator of pychocybernetics and father of generalized cybernetics, published in 1929 "Method of transonic chest" which states the first law of reversibility.
Along with participation in the International Congress of Military Medicine of Bucharest (1937), announces the appearance of his work "Psihologia consonatista" which first made public version of the generalized cybernetic conception and demonstrates the multi and interdisciplinary character nature of it. Cybernetic model, based on observation, intuition and reason, Odobleja created in 1938 - 1939, but ten years later circulated in American literature and then in the European one, has been used and applied in a variety of areas. Since 1972, Stefan has Odobleja studies cybernetics theory according to which the origin is in psychology.
STEFAN ODOBLEJA QUOTE: We do not see with our eyes but with the mind. If the mind is empty, the eyes look without seeing.
Did you know who the precursor of modern cybernetics was?
The TRUE inventor of INSULIN - Nicolae Paulescu - He invented insulin and the Nobel Prize goes to... doctor Frederick Grant Banting and biochemist John James Ri
Nicolae Paulescu, a professor of psychology at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, is the one who discovered for the first time in 1921, insulin, the hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, parotids and minerals in the body. Paulescu is the one that has demonstrated effectiveness of this substance in reducing hyperglycemia and to use insulin to treat diabetes. Its discovery has saved millions of lives.
Encyclopedias, however, presents in this chapter, the two "Canadian heroes" Frederick Banting and Charles Best who, that in 1922, were to receive the Nobel Prize in Paulescu's detriment. The 30 years of laboratory work and perseverance of the teacher have been stolen by two young Canadians, who were well aware of the Romanian's work from the publications of that time.
Based on its articles, they have managed to isolate insulin and to use in treating a patient. With eight months before, Paulescu published in a specialist Belgian journal the results of his research entitled "Recherches sur le pancreas du roller dans l'assimilation nutritive. " Just that it was not called insulin, but pancreina. In 1916, while he was in the final stages of research, German troops had occupied Bucharest. He had to postpone announcing final results.
BANTING: "He [Paulescu] states that injections into peripheral veins produce no effect and his experiments show that second injections do not produce such marked effect as the first",
Which is not what Paulescu found out or presented. Later on, Banting said that
"I regret very much that there was an error in our translation of Professor Paulescu's article, I cannot recollect, after this length of time, exactly what happened (...) I do not remember whether we relied on our own poor French or whether we had a translation made. In any case I would like to state how sorry I am for this unfortunate error (...)"
An error he said, but the Nobel Prize is still his.
Did you know that insulin was invented by Nicolae Paulescu?
The Inventor of Jet Plain - Henri Coanda
In 1910 at the Aeronautical Salon exhibition in Paris, Henri Coanda showed the plane he created that looked unusual for that time as it did not have a propeller. The people wondered how the plane would take off.
The real innovation was the propulsion system. After the exhibition was over, Coanda wanted to test the engine. When he started the engine, he realized that the flames were dangerously close to the wooden fuselage.
He tried to reduce the power of the engine and to control the flames, directing them back to the engine. The plane caught speed and left the ground. This was the first flight with a jet propulsion flight. After 20 years, he understood what happened with the flames. It is what is known today as the Coanda effect.
He studied the phenomenon for more than 35 years that air of light fluid materials attach to the closest surface. Throught his studies, Henri Coanda paved the way for jet planes, and contributed to the development of spacecraft navigation systems.
Did you know who the inventor of jet plane was?
A World without Romania - Have you ever thought how the world looked like without Romania?
This is a video compilation which describes the above mentioned inventions and many other nice things Romanian people did along history. Enjoy it, I am sure you will like it!
Dioramas - Inventor: Grigore Antipa
Diorama is a spatial representation of a portion of the landscape that is exposed in museums, stuffed animals, models, and various other objects similar in appearance to an ecosystem and creates the impression of a real landscape. The first thought that this form of framing of nature in the urban landscape was Antipa naturalist, biologist, zoologist, ecologist and professor. He is the founder of the National Museum of Natural History in Bucharest, which bears his name, and which, from its reorganization in 1907, shows for the first time biological Dioramas.
They represented a new stage in the evolution and organization of natural history museums. The first dioramas showed the life on the peaks of the Carpathian Mountains, hills region of Baragan, and Flooding of the Danube Delta area. Also, in the Museum of Natural History there are dioramas depicting the fauna of many regions of tundra, prairie, savanna and the Sahara Desert. Due to the exceptional presentation, many European and American museums have requested the support of Grigore Antipa for organizing their museum collection.
Basilic Cannon - Orban - The cannon that destroyed the Constantinople walls
The fall of Constantinople is the name under which is known the capture of the capital of Byzantine Empire by the forces of Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on 29 May 1453. Byzantine army had approximately 7,000 people, 2000 of whom were foreign mercenaries. The fortress had about 22.5 kilometers of fortified walls, probably the most powerful walls in existence that time. The Ottomans had a huge army of about 80,000 to 100,000 people, but swords and arrows were not enough to penetrate the huge Byzantine fortress. As such, the Ottomans hired an engineer named Urban or Orban, the origin still controversial, but about whose nationality there is enough evidence Romanian.
He was a specialist in the construction of guns, weapons that were still a novelty in the technique of fighting. Urban for the first time erected a huge cannon, named "Basilica cannon, measuring about eight meters long and 75 centimeters in diameter, which was able to launch a 544 kg projectile at a distance of nearly two kilometers. Urban's cannon was not accurate, it took three hours to charge, gun cannon balls were few and collapsed under its own recoil after six weeks. However, the instrument represented the precursor of today improved cannons, leaving as heritage his operating principle.
The Karpen Cell - Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen - An electric cell, produced in Romania, supplies energy for 56 years without interruption!
An electric cell, produced in Romania, supplies energy for 56 years without interruption. Inventor miracle, Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen, a scientist, engineer, physicist and inventor said, with a half-century ago that it will work forever. Inside the National Technical Museum "Dimitrie Leonida" in Bucharest there is a piece of property that sits in a safe metal armor, right in the museum director's office. It's known as "Thermoelectric cell with uniform temperature ", produced in 1950. The device is, in fact, a perpetual motion machine, a device that generates energy that is forever without outside intervention.
Although it would have had to stop for many decades, "Karpen's Cell" is willfully to function as its inventor predicted. Construction of a perpetual motion machine was the dream of mankind for centuries. A device to move forever, without receiving external pulse, thirst for power would solve the current civilization. In modern times, however, that dream was abandoned on the grounds that it would be a utopia. Those who still continued to seek solution were marginalized world of science considering them fools. Perpetuum mobile cannot exist. However, a Romanian physicist was stubborn to build it. And it seems to have succeeded. Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen began work on the theory of an electric cell that generates energy forever since before the First World War. "Cell" was patented in 1922. It was, in fact, about two cells in series, which set in motion a minimotor galvanometer. This, in turn, move a paddle connected to a switch. Every half rotation circuit opened wide so that the rotation of the second half to shut him up. Propeller rotation time was calculated so that cells have time to recharge, that how to restore polarity in the circuit is open. Such large-scale cell could power a spaceship.
Ejector seat - Dragomir Anastase - The history of an idea that until now saved hundreds of lives
If at the end of the XIX century, beginning of XX century, many aviation enthusiasts were concerned with building and flying their planes, a young man named Anastase Dragomir has focused attention on the safety of aircraft and especially the passengers on board. Anastase Dragomir was passionate, as many of the young that time, of aviation issues. He went to France, where he worked on several aircraft factories. Here he perfected his own system to save the pilots and passengers in case of accidents. On 3 November 1928, registered in France, the patent application "Nouveau Systeme des parachutes montage of the Locomotion dance les appareils aerienne" and obtained patent no. 678 566 on 2 April 1930 for "catapulted cabin".
This invention was "a new system of parachuting from locomotion aerial equipment, each passenger with its own parachute that allows in the critical moment, the release from the plane of this assembly, so the parachute along with the passenger seat, to pass through an opening of the floor. The patent require that this assembly of cell-parachute to have more commands, manevrabile by the pilot. In 1950, Anastase Dragomir won a new patent, Romanian, no. 40,658 for "parachuted cell, which consists of using a sliding curved backrest for ejecting cabins, either on foot or on top, as in 1959 to record another request, which concerned the construction of a transport aircraft equipped with catapultable cabins, to save passengers (Romanian patent no. 41424 from 1960). The Romanian idea will materialize by the emergence at the new types of supersonic military aircraft, of the ejector seat.
Cholera vaccine - Ioan Cantacuzino
Ioan Cantacuzino, academician, physician, microbiologist, Professor, founder of the Romanian school of experimental immunology and pathology, has developed a rich vibronic research on cholera and cholera vaccination. Based on investigations in this direction, the doctor has developed a cholera vaccination method, called "Method Cantacuzino", still used today in countries where there are cases of cholera. Getting involved in the study of cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, Ioan Cantacuzino makes outstanding contributions. He created the concept of immunity through contact.
The campaign of 1913 led the first massive cholera vaccination in infectious burning point, known in science as the "Great Romanian experience", which saved thousands of lives, and has initiated measures to combat the cholera epidemic. First World War as The leader of the civil and military health services has taken great steps to combat epidemics of typhus. Create a series of works that: discovering cellular and humoral immunity, sensitivity and lack of body immunity against scarlet fever, the study of world renown cholera and vaccinotherapy. Introduces Calmette's vaccine and in 1912 created antitific vaccine.
Gerovital - Ana Aslan - The formula of eternal youth
Roman physician specialist in gerontology, academician since 1974 and director of the National Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Ana Aslan emphasized the importance of procaine in improving age-related degenerative disorders, applying it widely in clinical geriatrics, under the name of Gerovital or vitamin H3. Geriatric product was prepared in 1952 and patented in over 30 countries. In the same year is founded the National Institute Geronto-Geriatrics Dr. Ana Aslan, first geriatrics institute in the world, a model for developing countries through research and clinical care.
"Ana Aslan" has, annually, thousands of patients. Aslan therapy effects on aging have convinced from the very beginning, bringing the institute patients with famous names: Tito, de Gaulle, Pinochet, Chaplin and Claudia Cardinale, princesses, continental and executives of large banks in the world. Reputation products "Aslan" went over the Ocean, John Kennedy appealed, for a spine disorder, to treatment at home "Gerovital".
Other interesting facts about Romania
1858 - Bucharest - the first city in the world that was illuminated by oil and the first oil refinery
1880 - Dumitru Vasescu - build a car with steam engine
1886 - Alexander Ciurcu - built the first jet boat
1895 - D. Hurmuzescu - discover electroscope
And more will come next...
1904 - Emil Racovita - founder bio-speleology
1906, 18.03 - Traian Vuia - plane landing gear wheels with tires, with "I Vuia" This first successful takeoff without using any means helpful, only devices on board (in fact, the first plane in history)
1906 - A.A. Beldiman - chisel hydraulic percussion device for deep surveys
1910 - Tache Brumarescu - Sulphur cutting machine
1918 - Gogu Constantinescu - founded a new science: Sonics
1920 - George Botezatu - possible trajectories calculated the Earth - the Moon, used in preparation of the "Apollo" (whose father was Herman Oberth Sibiu), he was also head of the team of mathematicians who worked on the rocket project "Apollo" which led the first man on the moon
1921 - Aurel Persu - car without differential and rear engine (like "water droplet")
1962 - Ion Agarbiceanu - the first gas laser (helium neon) infrared radiation