Depending on one's line of work, or career, mathematical ability is, more or less, important. An engineer or designer of complex systems usually requires a good math background. Most occupations, even work that is not usually associated with research or higher level thinking, requires some level of mathematical proficiency.
Many people make a living teaching math to students at all levels of the educational system, from grade school to the university level.
Math can be taught. There are different ways of teaching and there are different ways of learning math. Some ways are better than others.
You raise an interesting question concerning methods used to teach math and how many of the math questions "are not going to be seen 'verbatim' in the future, in the real world, so to speak." Interesting question and good thinking.