I would suggest that the only ones who have not failed are young children, say, before high school.
In any systemic failure, all parties involved bear some of the responsibility. But, at this point, most of the causes of the failure go back generations. How can poorly educated parents (themselves children of poorly educated parents) and poorly educated teachers, organized by a government composed of poorly educated politicians and government workers, create a good educational system and provide good education. So, these days, everyone is responsible and no one is to blame.
I don't see a systemic solution; I see public education as essential to democracy, and also as a failed experiment.
On an individual level, anyone can choose to educate himself. An essential element is to decide to learn how to learn. Another is to commit to that learning, no matter what anyone else does.