I did a semester on the "History and Philosophy of Science" over 40 years ago. It mainly concentrated (I think) on the schism between Religion and Science sometime in the Middle Ages. I remember we covered Galileo and Kepler and the row with Religion over whether what they could see through the telescope was confirmed by the Bible. That one was eventually solved by re-interpreting the Bible to agree with what could be seen.
I suppose "Science" is noting and interpreting observations, whereas the philosophy of science looks at the thinking around HOW interpretations are made and the social context and how that affects the observations and the interpretation.