ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Apollo Programme

Updated on January 4, 2017

In 1961 President John F. Kennedy announced that the United States would land a man on the Moon before 1970. The method chosen by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was known as the "lunar-orbit rendezvous" method.

A Saturn V rocket would launch the three-man Apollo spacecraft, weighing about 45,000 kilograms, on course to the Moon. The spacecraft was built in three sections : command module,service module and lunar module. After the 2day journey to the Moon, the spacecraft would be put in lunar orbit. The lunar module, with two astronauts aboard, would then "undock" from the mother ship and descend to the surface of the Moon, leaving the third man in orbit in the command module. After landing, the astronauts would make scientific observations and collect samples. They would then take off from the Moon in the top half, or "ascent stage" of the lunar module and rejoin the orbiting command module. After "re-docking" the astronauts would discard the lunar module and blast out of orbit for the return to Earth. Only the conical-shaped command module was designed to return to Earth for a "splashdown" landing in the sea.

The programme received a setback in 1967 when fire broke out in an Apollo spacecraft during ground tests, killing three astronauts working inside. Design changes were made and a number of unmanned Apollo craft were launched before Apollo 7 made the first manned flight in Earth orbit in 1968. Later that year Apollo 8 flew round the Moon, making ten Moon orbits before returning to Earth. In March 1969 Apollo 9 tested the lunar module in space for the first time and in May 1969 Apollo 10 made 31 Moon orbits. Two astronauts descended in the lunar module to within 15 kilometres of the surface.

The climax of the programme came in July 1969 with the Moon landing of Apollo 11. Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin made a safe touchdown in the Sea of Tranquillity. In November came a second landing by Charles Conrad and Alan Bean in Apollo 12.

Disaster almost overtook Apollo 13 in April 1970. The spacecraft was damaged more than 320,000 kilometres from Earth and had to fly round the Moon and return without attempting a landing.

Apollo 14, with Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell, made a successful Moon landing in January 1971. In July 1971, Apollo 15 landed David Scott and Jim Irwin with the first lunar rover vehicle. The last two Apollo Moon flights took place in'197 2. John Young and Charles Duke landed in Apollo 16 in April and Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt in Apollo 17 in December.

This brought the Apollo programme to an end, although some of the equipment was later used in the Apollo-Soyuz flight (with Soviet Union Cosmonauts).


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)