# Apologia Physical Science Module 2 Links: Air

Updated on September 29, 2018

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## Module 2: Air

Links and experiments about the properties of air to supplement Module 2 of Apologia's Exploring Creation with Physical Science. It is recommended as an 8th grade middle school course, but may also be used for ninth grade or younger advanced students.This curriculum is popular in Christian schools and homeschools to learn the science necessary for advanced education. I pray that by the end of the course, you will more deeply appreciate the wonder of God's creation!

## Supplements

DonnaYoung.org has a FREE 3 page PDF of Apologia Physical Science Vocabulary

## The Air and Humidity

VHSG: Air

Log in and access teaching of the entire Apologia Physical Science course with labs, review quizzes, and exams! Watch the orientation (You must own the textbook).

BrainPOP: Humidity

## Sing along and Learn!

Humidity is relative, but relative to what?

If I were quizzed on what it is, then I’d be on the spot.

So, just in case, to save my face, I’ll look it up today

And then if someone brings it up, I’ll casually say:

Humidity is the amount of moisture in the air.

Relative humidity is the percentage of water vapor actually in the air,

compared with the most that the air could hold, at each temperature.

Now when they say, “It’s not the heat but the humidity”,

I won’t be quite as hot and bothered as I used to be!

Lyrics by Hy Zaret

Music by Lou Singer

Sung by Tom Glazer and The Weathervanes

## Humidity

The moisture content of the air.

## Experiment 2.1: Evaporation and Temperature

You will need:

......................

A small glass

Two cotton balls

Tap water

A bulb thermometer (To read room temperature and slightly higher; it must have a bulb at the end.)

A small piece of plastic

## Relative Humidity

The ratio of the mass of water vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum mass of

water vapor the air could hold at that temperature expressed as a percentage.

## Absolute Humidity

The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air.

## Sing Along and Learn!

What does the glass of a greenhouse do?

It lets the short solar rays pass through.

The objects in the house absorb these rays

And re-radiate them as long heat rays.

What does the glass of a greenhouse do?

It doesn’t let the long heat rays pass through.

Trapped by the glass they bounce back and forth,

Re-radiated and re-absorbed.

Stay! Stay, you long heat rays!

Warm up the house on cold, cold days!

Stay! Stay, you long heat rays!

Warm up the house on cold, cold days!

The atmosphere is like a greenhouse, too.

It lets most of the solar rays through.

The surface of the Earth absorbs these rays

And re-radiates them as long heat rays.

There’s vapor in the air, what does it do?

It doesn’t let the long heat rays pass through.

Trapped by the vapor, they bounce back and forth

Re-radiated and re-absorbed.

Stay! Stay, you long heat rays!

Warm up the house on cold, cold days!

Stay! Stay, you long heat rays!

Warm up the Earth on cold, cold days!

Lyrics by Hy Zaret

Music by Lou Singer

Sung by Tom Glazer and The Weathervanes

## Experiment 2.2: Oxygen and Fire

You will need:

......................

Large glass or jar

A candle

Matches

2 cups of hydrogen peroxide

Baker's yeast

A bottle (A plastic, 1-liter soda pop bottle, for example)

A balloon

A teaspoon

## Greenhouse Effect

The process by which certain gases (principally water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane) trap

heat that radiates from earth.

## Experiment 2.3: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect

You will need:

......................

Thermometer (To read slightly higher and lower than room temperature.)

A large, clear Ziploc freezer bag (To fit thermometer)

Sunny windowsill

Vinegar

Baking soda

Teaspoon

## Global Warming?

BrainPOP: Global Warming

## Parts Per Million

The number of molecules ( or atoms) of a substance in a mixture for every 1 million molecules (or atoms) in that mixture.

1%= 10,000 ppm

## What is Ozone?

Ozone: Good up high, bad nearby.

— US EPA

Ozone is a light blue gas made of 3 oxygen molecules. It's named from the Latin word ozein which means "to smell", because it has a pungent odor. It occurs naturally in the stratosphere where it protects the earth from the sun's ultraviolet radiation. At ground level, ozone is created when nitrogen oxide gases react with carbon pollutants. This man-made ozone is toxic to people and plants.

• CK-12 ozone depletion lesson and ozone quiz
• EPA Ozone Brochure PDF
• BrainPOP: Ozone Layer
• HippoCampus: The Ozone: Short multimedia presentation
• NASA Ozone Watch: Satellites monitor the ozone layer over the Arctic and Antarctic. Their data is used to create images that show the amount of daily and monthly ozone. The blue and purple colors are where there is the least ozone, and the yellows and reds are where there is more ozone. There is no ozone hole! It is a circular region over the poles where there is a smaller concentration of ozone in the early spring. This is when the poles are still cold but the sun is getting stronger. It is colder in the Antarctic than the Arctic, so the ozone is thinner around the south pole. This seasonal depletion was discovered in 1985. Pollutants including Methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), nitrous oxide (N2O) and water (H2O) are carried up into the stratosphere and broken down by UV radiation to release halogens (Chlorine, Bromine, Fluorine) that bond with ozone and convert it to oxygen.

## Love Singing Science Records?

Ballads for the Age of Science

If you love Singing Science Records like I do, enjoy a 6 CD Box Set!

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## How did your experiments work out?

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