ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Group Behaviour - How We Are Affected By The Presence Of Others

Updated on September 24, 2015
Our behaviour in groups can be quite different from individually
Our behaviour in groups can be quite different from individually | Source

Psychology experiments into group behaviour have been extremely influential in the development of psychology in the 20th Century. A group can be defined as the gathering of two or more individuals and this simple act and its consequences, has proved to be a rich source of exploration for eager psychologists looking to explain behaviour.

The Experimental Viewpoint

Much of this research has been carried out from an experimental perspective, where by creating controlled environments, experiments can be preformed where subjects can be closely observed on their responses to a range of social stimuli.

The clear advantage of such a methodology is the aspect of control where the researcher is able to simulate a situation and assert control over variables in order to analyse responses. This aims to establish causes and effects and advocates of the experimental perspective are convinced of the benefits of their methods.

Observing Behaviour in Psychology
Observing Behaviour in Psychology | Source

Behavioural Studies of Sherif

An obvious starting point is the classical studies carried out by Sherif (1936). Sherif examined the influence of other group members on individuals within the group by conducting studies into decision making.

Using optical illusion, Sherif firstly asked his subjects, while alone, to estimate the movement of a light. He found in this environment, individuals make their decisions quickly and utilised what he called their own ‘personal frame of reference’ (Brown, 2004), producing a broad range of estimates.

Repeating the study with two or three individuals in a simulated group setting he discovered that their estimates became more similar to the other group members.

Sherif concluded that the presence of others can influence the judgements or decisions made by individuals.

Testing individuals alone first provides opportunity to analyse their personal decision making processes in order for a comparison to be available after group testing.

Being part of a group can be very powerful
Being part of a group can be very powerful | Source

Making Judgements Within a Group

Judgements collected from subjects when tested alone would provide a basis to expect similar judgements when they are tested as a group. If indeed these judgements were similar, this would throw doubt upon whether it was actually the group setting that produced the results found.

Upon evaluation of the study it was suggested that some subjects may have been more forceful in their judgements, stating them early on in the discussion. This suggests a role of ‘leader’ emerges allowing the remaining group members to simply follow this lead.

Group Pressure
Group Pressure | Source

Peer Pressure

The studies of Asch (1952) are also of significance and are very similar in design to those of Sherif.

Asch focused on the conditions that may induce individuals and groups to either resist or yield to external pressures such as peer pressure. The main differences between Aschs and Sherifs studies were the introduction of ‘confederates’ who were group members secretly instructed by the researcher to behave in a certain way.

Asch Experiments

Asch discovered a significant shift towards the majority opinion in the group, therefore the naïve subject consistently moved towards the view of the confederates who he/she was outnumbered by.

Overall, Asch found that one third of his subjects moved towards the majority opinion. In further studies, Asch made the difference between the lines smaller so the matching of the lines proved more difficult. In these studies he found more subjects conformed to the majority judgement of the confederates.

Psychological Pressure
Psychological Pressure | Source

Interestingly, when a further ‘naïve’ subject was added to the experiment there was a marked decrease in the percentage of ‘naïve’ subjects who moved towards the majority when the second ‘naïve’ subject agreed with their opinion.

Asch's Confederates Experiment

Eight subjects were in the group, seven of which were confederates of the researcher instructed to give the same wrong answer.

The task was to judge which of three unequal lines on a card matched a comparison line on another card.

The lone subject who was not a confederate was called the ‘naïve’ subject. Each subject was asked to announce their opinion to the group without prior discussion.

"A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say: we did it ourselves"

— Lao Tzu

Individual Differences

Aschs research was an improvement of Sherifs study and by introducing confederates has produced much more detailed results. In this study the only factor available as to why the ‘naïve’ subjects may have changed their opinion was the influence of the confederates’ majority view.

Therefore, his conclusion that a majority can influence a minority appears accurate. However, it is important to note that one quarter of the subjects in fact remained independent and did not change their opinion despite the pressure of the majority confederates.

This does not refute Aschs conclusion but it does point towards individual differences and minimise the significance of his conclusion.

Group Awareness
Group Awareness | Source

Group Awareness

Post-experiment interviews revealed that the subjects felt conflict; however those who did not yield claimed they were able to separate themselves mentally from the rest of the group.

This raises the issue of whether the subjects were actually aware of being in a group. In Sheriffs’ study, subjects commented on struggling to arrive at answers on their own and not considering themselves as part of a group.

Despite this claim a significant percentage still followed the suggestion of others and behaved in a in a way characteristic of being a group member.

The Controversial Studies of Milgram

Another influence to be considered in the experimental perspective and its contribution to the study of groups is the studies of Milgram (1960-1963).

His studies were extreme and in today’s times would raise serious ethical concerns were it to be repeated. Milgram created a controlled experiment where one individual was instructed to inflict pain on another, who was a confederate, through the means of electric shocks. These experiments found that 26 out of the 40 subjects indeed conformed to the researchers’ instructions (Brown, 2004).

Milgrams conclusions were that group membership may provide protection to individual members from the pressures put upon them by the researcher.

In a second study, Milgram introduced a second confederate who refused to conform to the researchers’ instructions. Interestingly, it was found that in this situation the number of subjects who did conform to instructions dropped dramatically to only 4 out of the 40 subjects tested (Brown, 2004).

What Milgrams studies do is provide further evidence that when support is available within a group, members are more likely to persist with their original opinion as seen in Aschs studies.

Minority Group Members

Further research closely related to Aschs work is the studies of Moscovici and colleagues (1969). Female subjects were tested and asked to estimate the colour of a slide. Mirroring Aschs controls, two of the six subjects tested were confederates of the researcher and were instructed to call the slides green.

The naïve subjects saw the slide as blue. This was a consistent pattern which is the significant factor of this study. In the control conditions with no confederates it was found that more subjects called the slides green.

Psychology Cognitive Thinking
Psychology Cognitive Thinking | Source

In the second condition, the confederates were inconsistent and the effects on the naïve subjects were not statistically significant. Moscovici concluded that a minority can influence a majority.

This is the opposite conclusion to Aschs conclusions, however rather than contradict them, they co-exist in that they show that both situations are possible.

In explanation, Moscovici claimed that different processes are at work. He believed that information from a minority is processed more actively due to the cognitive and social conflict in which it induces, therefore creating counter arguments.

Moscovici’s work illustrates possible conflict and confusion of evidence within the same perspective and methodology.

What these studies have shown us is that individuals are more likely to be honest in their responses when alone and have no external pressures present. When in a group setting, support of other members is required in order for them to feel confident in their views. Furthermore, when they are outnumbered by an opposing opinion, self-doubt sets in and conformity may occur. However, there may be exceptions to this as illustrated by the studies of Moscovici. As humans we are very social and will migrate towards others when the opportunity presents itself. Where psychology is useful is helping us to understand how this can affect our behaviour and our decisions even if we are not fully aware of them ourselves.


Asch, S.E. (1952b). "Social psychology". Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Brown, H. (ed) (2004) ‘Themes in experimental research on groups from the 1930’s and the 1990’s’ in Wetherall, M (ed) (2004) ‘ Identities, Groups and Social Issues’ London, The Open Univerisity/SAGE

Morgan, H and Thomas, K (eds) (2004) ‘ A psychodynamic perspective on group processes’ in Wetherall, M (ed) (2004) ‘ Identities, Groups and Social Issues’ London, The Open Univerisity/SAGE

Moscovici, S., Lage, E., & Naffrechoux, M. (1969). Influence of a consistent minority on the responses of a majority in a color perception task. Sociometry, 365-380

Sherif, M. (1936). The psychology of social norms.Oxford, England: Harper, xii 210

© 2014 PsychGeek


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)