The Bunsen Burner
The Bunsen Burner is a burner invented by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen of Heidelberg, in 1855, for use in the university laboratories so that coal gas could be burned without leaving a sooty deposit upon the articles heated.
Air (about three volumes to every volume of gas) is drawn into the burner tube through which the gas issues by a fine jet at the bottom. The mixture burns with a non-luminous flame and the combustion is complete. The Bunsen flame has an 'oxidising' zone, or outer envelope where oxygen is in excess, and a 'reducer' zone in the centre where unburnt gases are to be found.
Such apparatus as incandescent burners, gas cookers and gas fires depend for their operation upon the principle of the Bunsen burner. There are various modifications, e.g., the Meker burner in which the burner head is fitted with a nickel grid 1 cm deep, thus giving a large number of narrow Bunsen flames. This burner allows the injection of a larger amount of air giving a very hot 'solid' flame.
When supplied with compressed air it is very useful for furnaces, the temperature attainable being about 1830°C.