Capitalist Traits in Human Being!
Just imagine of the time when our forefathers were hunter and food-gatherers, roaming on the earth in bands in search of the game and food. The social order of the tribes of ancient times must have been far less complicated and too simple than of our present complex civilizations. Still a primary order must have been necessitated to form the unity of the tribe. Though the ethics and religious concepts were primordial, they must have needed them to maintain internal order for the survival and hope for the better future.
Every tribe needed a leader to take decisions on its behalf. If no leader, there would be possibility of disintegration of the tribe in lack of the ability to take collective decisions as to which direction be taken, how to avoid or fight enemy tribes etc. Was leader of the tribe alone could take the decisions that would have sever implication on the tribes future? The answer obviously would be No . It seems that there must have been an assembly of the elders, who had had experience of their life to the disposal of the tribes well being. But still the leader was the final authority. He was not only leader of the tribe but of their rudimentary religion as well. Hence he could oracle to satisfy his tribesmen to avoid any confrontation.
Leader would be a stronger man, came to the position by winning and killing his opponent(s). The weak and timid had no place in their society. They endeavored to make the child grow in a fashion the tribal society needed for survival. The fertile women obviously got more respect. This shows the primordial social order too was not based on the value of the social equality.
Was there any kind of economic system then? Yes, there must have been some kind of primordial system to sustain the life of those wilder times. The proofs indicate that the rudimentary economic system did exist within the tribes. Barter system must have been in place between friendly tribes, but at very meager level. What they would trade? Food, animal, ornaments and meager merchandise must have been traded among them. It is a possibility that the tools and weapons made of stone too would have been a merchandise, as archeological finds from stone age indicate that there were stone-weapon manufacturing centers around the region where basalt rock quarries situated.
Within the tribe how system would have been working?
To begin with, let us try understand why were tribes would engage in battles with other tribes? It was obviously for claiming the territories where abundant game or forest-food was available. Though the principle of permanent ownership over land was yet to dawn upon the mankind, the food for life was their perpetual strife. They needed to drive out other tribe (s) applying the force from the territories or befriend with the tribes to get the share, whatsoever, in mutual understanding. The linguistic developments mostly took because of the hostilities and negotiations of those times. Here, we must understand, basics of primordial economics was to survive through all the odds.
Let us see how distribution of the wealth would have been done. What was wealth then? The game, gathered food from the forests, makeshift or temporary homes made of leather or wood, weapons, rudimentary ornaments and cloths (mostly of the leather) would be the elementary wealth to those people.
From the hunting, that was conducted jointly, was everyone getting equal share? The answer is obviously no. the leader naturally would get best of the share. If the game would be abundant, only leader and elders would get priority to feed them to their satisfaction and rest would be distributed amongst the tribesmen.
Some part would naturally be preserved for their deity, that would be any pagan symbol of their like. Why? Unless their God was pleased how they could have surety of sufficient game and food in the future? Thus God’s capitalization must have began.
Hence, though in the primordial times too, everyone’s share in labor was equal, distribution of the wealth among them was not equal.
So we can see the traces of capitalism in our earliest social order. Still women were common property of the tribe though the highest respect could have been given for their fertility.
When distribution of the wealth becomes characteristically in descending order, from leader to rest of the tribesmen, it is nothing but a source of capitalism of we the mankind.
When human species became a agrarian society, capitalism further got strengthened. Till then, when he was hunter or pastoral man, there was no need of claiming the ownership of the land. Internal order of the society was essentially matriarchal. But as he settled with his innovative invention of agriculture need to claim on the land became inevitable. May be in the beginning whole tribe would own the land trying to keep aggressors at bay. However the social order was gradually changed based on the division of the labor.
Still the distribution of the produce couldn’t have been equal to each one. The gradation among the people, farmers and other service or product providers, must have been in different order. From the remains of early civilizations, we can find the residences of the people in descending order. Palaces for kings, big houses for the nobles and priests and ordinary houses for the commoners, which shows inequality in the distribution of the wealth and status though the every citizen was equal contributor to the creation of the wealth as a whole.
This indicates drastic change in social order, keeping ancient capitalistic traits alive. Women gradually started getting secondary status in the society with the marriage system introduced to establish patriarchal society. So far, women were common property of the tribe having prime importance and respect for being her fertile. But to claim and pass on inheritance to next generations over material wealth accumulated over the lifetime, women too needed to be owned by the individuals. Marriage system of the mankind is nothing but the capitalization of the women, making her property of an individual.
The formations of political systems owes to the capitalist traits inherently existent in human blood. Means changed, system changed to suit capitalist concepts of the human being in the course of the human history. Kingdoms, empires were the system that was developed to suit capitalist mindset of the people. Ultimate aim was to claim more and more land, enslave more and more men to produce more wealth, enslave women to produce more and more slaves, thus creating and enhancing the wealth.
Today, most of the nations follow democratic pattern. But in a way democracy is against human nature. This is why imperialism still persists with nationalism. Imperialism is a symbol of capitalism. Every individual, business and corporate houses and nations are in a race to gain more and more wealth. To achieve the goal of capitalism, creation or acquisition of the wealth, one after other models were designed and abandoned to hold another. Thus democracy always needed the leaders who posses imperialist mindset.
Marxism was a counter system introduced to the world. The system talked of the ideals and reworked on the social history of the mankind to show the actual creators of the wealth were peasants and small producers whereas the business houses, industrialists, landlords and kingship's were exploiters. The ism pleaded equal share to each citizen of the wealth accumulated by the society.
Prima-facie the logic was humanitarian, giving justice to the unending strife of the mankind. Marxism, later branched in different sects, shook entire system of the nineteenth and twentieth century with many countries getting in to communist/socialist pattern. The war between capitalism and socialism/communism had become imminent. We still remember the era of cold war. But Soviet Russia fell, disintegrated and had to come back to the old capitalistic pattern.
Why did this happen? We must note that capitalism is human nature. Whether we accept it or not, no social order can ever survive without it. Still there exists communist countries, but inevitably are following the capitalistic practices in the new global order. This was bound to happen.
Does this mean the capitalist system is the best? The answer should be definitely “No”. Capitalist system has its own disadvantages to the society. It is inhuman, Laden with insatiable greed. It strives to convert the human being in to a beast, if stretched too far. It destroys natural resources to meet the needs; those may not be the real needs of the human society. It keeps on creating an artificial needs. The capitalist system doesn’t work for society as a whole but for individuals, hence the public needs are not their priority to address.
Hence a balance is always required. Everyone should keep greed within the limit. Some elements of communism are always worth to follow. Governments to some extent have learned and implemented it. To retain human respect government needs to perform greater roles than falling for the capitalist lobbyists. If capitalism is an ancient human trait, government should follow some of communist principles to achieve equilibrium between the individuals and society as a whole.