ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Cell components and their functions

Updated on March 15, 2013

"Cell is the structural and functional unit of living organisms".

Source

Cells vary considerably in shape, size, structure and function. Consequently, there is no typical cell. However , all of them share some common features. Let us discuss ...

Plasma membrane

  • Protect the cytoplasm
  • Maintains selective permeability.
  • Regulates the movement of water and minerals.
  • Helps in protein synthesis and excretion of waste materials.

Cytoplasm

  • Provides site for enzyme activity
  • Regulates different plant metabolisms like glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt and fat hydrolysis etc.

Cell organelles and their functions

Electron microscopic studies have revealed that each cell contains in it several living sub cellular particles called cell organelles which perform different functions. The chief cell organelles are mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, plastids (only in plants) , golgi body and nucleus etc.

Nucleus
Nucleus

Nucleus

  • Apparatus of hereditary
  • Control hereditary characters

Nuclear membrane

  • Regulates movement of materials entering and coming out of nucleus
  • Separates cytoplasm from nuceloplasm

Nucleoplasm

  • Acts as reservoir of various enzymes and nucleotides

Nucleolus

  • Formation of ribosomes
  • Helps in cell division
  • Synthesis of RNA and protein
  • Reservoir of RNA


Chloroplast Structure
Chloroplast Structure

Plastids

Chloroplast

  • Photosynthesis
  • Synthesis of starch(in green cells), protein and fatty acids
  • Hereditary and mutation
  • Stroma is the site for dark reaction of photosyntheisis.
  • Grana is the site for light reaction of photosyntheisis.

Amayloplast: storage and synthesis of starch in non green cells

Lipoplasts- Storage and synthesis of lipids

Proteinoplast- storage of proteins

Chrmoplast-synthesis of coloured substances

Mitochondria

  • Help in oxidation of food materials
  • Work ass power house of the cell
  • Act as site of Kreb’ s cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation and produce ATP.

Ribosomes

  • Act as site and help in protein synthesis

Endoplasmic reticulam (ER)

  • Provides mechanical strength to the cell and helps in transportation of materials.
  • Provides surface area for several chemical reactions
  • Helps in metabolism of cholesterol and steroid hormones
  • Provides site for protein synthesis.
  • Granular ER helps in protein synthesis and smooth ER synthesis

Golgi bodies ( Dictyosomes)

  • Help in the formation of primary lysosomes, vacuoles and cell plate
  • Help in production of hormone
  • Help in intercellular transport
  • Store protein and fat
  • Help in membrane transformation and secretion

Lysosomes

  • Digest external and intercellular materials
  • Autolysis

Centrosome

  • Formation of spindle during cll division in animal cells

Vacuoles

  • Store cell sap
  • Maintain osmotic relations of cell

Microbodies

a) Glyoxysome

  • Conversion of fat into carbohydrates.

b) Peroxysome:

  • Helps in photorespiration
  • Helps in glycolate metabolism

C) Sphaerosomes:

  • Synthesis fat
  • Storage and translocation of fat

d) Lomasomes

  • Synthesis of cell wall

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)