ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Chemical Equilibrium Equations and Equilibrium Constants Formula (Haber Bosch Process, limestone cave formation)

Updated on August 12, 2012

Equilibrium constant and reaction formula


Equilibrium equations in chemistry define which side of a reaction dominates (reactant side or product side). Depending which side is stronger the reaction is more or less likely to happen.
In the first part, you will learn about the basics and the second part will consist of examples, where equilibrium equations appear in everyday life and nature.

The general form of an equilibrium equation is:

aA + bB ↔ cC + dD
The capital letters A, B, C and D stand of the reactants and products, whereas the small letters a, b, c and d are the so-called stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced equation.

In order to find out the concentration of the reactants and products, the following general equation is used.

Keq = [product]x / [reactant]y

Keq signifies a constant number in the equilibrium equation and remains therefore unchanged.
The words (or molecules) in the square parentheses stand for the concentration of the molecules given in moles per gram. The small letters x and y are variables which can be a, b, c or d.
To make this clearer, the formula above will be applied on an example.
Keep in mind that these equations are only applied on gaseous or aqueous (solved) molecules. Solids and liquids are assumed to have a constant concentration and do not appear in these equations. Should they appear in any case, they can be “ignored”.

1N2 (g) + 3H2 2NH3 (g) (+heat)

The equation Keq = [product]x / [reactant]yis applied in order to find out the concentrations.
The product is 2NH3 and the reactants are N2 and 3H2, so:

Keq = [NH3]2 / [N2]1 * [H2]3

As one can see the molecules used in the first equation are the powers of the concentration values in the second equation. Imagine you used 3 hydrogen molecules and one nitrogen molecule. So, there was three times more hydrogen concentrated in the first part than nitrogen. So, you calculate
[H2] * [H2] *[H2] = [H2]3. Therefore, the ration used and achieved (on the product side) tells you also the power of the concentration.

Source

Equilibrium equations in nature: formation of limestone caves


As one can see it on the picture; the ground consists of CaCO3 or limestone in other words.
Acidic rain falls down on the earth and an acid / base reaction takes place:
Formation of acidic rain: CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3
H2CO3 is a very acidic compound and will behave as an acid during the limestone formation.
The acidic rain (H2CO3) dissolves the limestone:
H2CO3 (g) + CaCO3 (s) ↔ 2HCO3- (aq) + Ca2+ (s)
CO32- behaved as a base. For the calculation of the concentrations Calcium can be neglected since it is a solid.
The equilibrium is constantly shifting (in nature) and is also responsible for the formation of stalagmites and stalactites.


Equilibrium equations in daily life: Formation of Fizzy Powder (e.g. froth of Coca-Cola)


The formation of froth or fizzy powder is the spontaneous decay of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide.

H2CO3 (aq) ↔ H2O (aq) + CO2 (aq)
They are all aqueous (aq), because they are in a solution.


Equilibrium equations in Industry: Haber-Bosch-Process

Haber-Bosch-procedure: The Haber-Bosch-procedure is the process of gathering ammonia where it is used in various fields. The general equation is:
N2+3H2 ↔ 2NH3
But in order to obtain NH3,or ammonia, the reaction has several immediate steps in order to catalyse this equation. Without any catalysts, nitrogen will not react with hydrogen because large amount of energy is needed to break the triple bond.
. That is why this reaction is highly exothermic.
The N2 or nitrogen goes into a catalyst, which is a reactor and a compressor. In this first step, nitrogen experiences a high temperature (about 300°C to 550°C) and a very high pressure (150-300bar). Afterwards it passes the heat recovery boiler as a hydrogen-nitrogen-ammonia mixture, where it will cool down and then goes along to the gas recovery part, where the final product ammonia (NH3) is collected. The cooling part is necessary in order to maintain a reasonable equilibrium constant.

Source

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)