ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Education and Science»
  • Life Sciences

The Merits of Darwin. Evolution Is a Scientific Fact

Updated on December 26, 2014

The Origin of Species

In his first book, "The Origin of Species," Darwin essentially has occupied himself with the examination of animals and fossils, but almost ignoring the men , a subject, treated in any possible manner in his next work, titled "The Origin of Man", published in 1871.

Around Darwin, Darwinism, Evolution and Evolutionism we have tons of books, including titles that I don't know if they can make us laugh or cry, like the following: "Darwin explained to children". But not chatting, because it is better to go directly to the heart of the matter, that is the problem that most fascinates the general public: the origin and evolution of man.

Then, we may say quite simply that Darwin's work has the merit of clarity, explaining the mechanism by which organic evolution takes place, i.e. the mechanism of natural selection, by extending the concept to humans. The merits of Darwin were therefore to set SCIENTIFICALLY the problem of our BIOLOGICAL PARENTAGE with the so-called NON-human primates.

The “Offending” Sentence of Darwin:

“We thus learn that man is descended from a hairy, tailed quadruped, probably arboreal in its habits, and an inhabitant of the Old World. This creature, if its whole structure had been examined by a naturalist, would have been classed amongst the Quadrumana” (1).

Contemporary Studies in Evolution

Outstanding discoveries are made by scholars in human evolutionary history. The remains of the Australopithecines of South Africa, of Pithecanthropus, called Java man, the remains found in the Omo Valley in south-west Ethiopia show that there existed intermediate forms between today's man and his ancestors.

The information that scholars have drawn from the study of these remains show that there is a sort of genetic continuity between the primates and all modern men. The fundamental problem is to determine exactly what form of non-human primates is related to man. Hence the careful study of the BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS of non-human primates. The amount of information obtained from the chromosome studies which contain DNA (genes) are extremely important to determine the distances between the different biological species.

The study of chromosome and DNA replication on the remains found in the western Rift Valley of East Africa (dating back to 3-4 million years ago) have shown that they are both the oldest remains of pre-human forms, and that they also appear to be in humans, linking man and the ape in common ancestry. This theory reveals a direct relationship among humans, chimpanzee and gorillas that lived in Africa 5-6 million years ago. Lucy and the other Hominids in the Afar [Ethiopia] are Hominids with apish tendencies but with human-like characteristics.

According to the most accredited hypotheses and theories, at least 250 thousand generations separate us from our COMMON ANCESTOR. Regarding both the “quadruped," and “quadrumana" cited by Darwin, science has proved that the upright position of man has an “ecological origin” because while the apes chose the forests, our ancestors chose instead the savanna. The choice of the savanna [ occurred about 3 million years ago] determined the new man's posture, who became more and more erect (2).

These are the scientific findings of Darwin, whose primary merit was the conduct of scientific research on the problem of origins of our ancestors, and all serious scientists today recognize it. Sergio Tonzig, who presented the problem of evolution in a very correct way, wrote that "Evolution is a fact”:

“Until recently, the dilemma ‘Evolution yes-Evolution no’ was the subject of harsh and overly violent disputes, determined above all by the fact that the answer to this question was arbitrary linked to the answer for the origin of life.

This is not the case, however.

And when it was recognized, those scraps stopped or at least lost interest. The two issues, the evolution and the origin of life DO NOT belong to the same field of discourse. The first (the evolution) has a secure place in the area of scientific objectivity, while the second (the origin of life) remains entirely outside the scope of science because it is still in the realm of the supernatural” (3).

Evolution Is a Fact.

“Evolution is a fact”, Tonzig wrote . “We know its history, mechanisms and results. We can even reproduce it in the laboratory, giving rise to a new discipline, the science of genetics including molecular biology.

This question is forever closed.

The second question poses therefore the following issue, ‘Is the origin of life and its evolutionary mechanisms the result of the case or creative intervention of God ?’

This is another matter, which has nothing to do with Evolution, “a scientific fact, ” because “Darwin explicitly excluded the origin of life from his theory” (4).

Notes

1) C. Darwin, “The Essential Darwin”, Dover Publications, First Edition 2006, p. 55.

2) B. Chiarelli, “Origine ed evoluzione dell’uomo”, in “Cultura e Scuola”, 1984, n. 91, pp. 254-257. B. Chiarelli is Director of the National Museum of anthropology and Ethnology in Florence. Darwin's words have often been misinterpreted, and sometimes you hear that “Man comes from monkeys,” where "monkeys" means specimens of monkeys that currently exist. Which, of course, is a gross scientific and historical absurdity that confuses the reader.

3) S. Tonzig, “Sull’evoluzione biologica”, VIII, in “Cultura e Scuola”, 1991, n. 117, pp. 206-208. Sergio Tonzig (1905-1998) was a Professor Emeritus of Botany, and an illustrious member of the Academy of Sciences in Turin.

4) P.S. Agutter-D. N. Wheatley, “Thinking about Life: The history and philosophy of biology and other sciences”, Springer, 2008, p. 224. On "tons" of paper written about Darwin and the interpretations of his work, see A. La Vergata, ““Interpretazioni di Darwin”[ Darwin’s Interpretations], in “Cultura e Scuola”, 1985, no. 93, pp. 127-135. "Going into tons of paper written on Darwin, we find funny works like “L’evoluzione e il darwinismo adombrati nell’Apocalisse” [The Evolution and Darwinism Overshadowed in the Apocalypse], “Darwin non è cosa per bambini” Darwin is not for children], but also “Darwin spiegato ai bambini” [Darwin explained to children], (p. 130).

Evolution

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)