ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Language grammar

Updated on March 5, 2017
teresapelka profile image

Linguist, specialized in American English and psycholinguistics; inventor of Language Mapping, a generative grammar; author and translator.

Importance of language

Language is not just another school course. Language is part the human thinking matter. Good language skills can be a good idea for a better job and a better living.

English is one of the linguae francae of the contemporary world. More and more people learn it. More and more people happen to experience failure, too.

The language has become mandatory in many educational systems. This means that success or failure with English weighs on the student's overall progress in gaining educational recognition, as well as prospects for employment.

The learning habit

The way we learn depends on what we are used to have for our guidance. Most grammar books will offer rules and definitions, as

We use the present simple to talk about general facts ... (Cambridge);

The simple present tense in English is used to describe an action that is regular, true or normal. (Woodward Grammar)

Most people are accustomed to have grammar rules, and the rules become memorized. The question yet is: Could human thinking come pret-a-porter, ready-to-wear? And the natural answer remains — NO.

School and life

At school, we can get multiple choice tests, and written exams give some 45 or even 90 minutes to come up with answers, on average.

Everyday life, we speak and write in real time. Often, we do not have the time to think about rules or definitions. Further, the more grammar books we read, the better we realize there is no grammar book to decide if we want to say that we live somewhere, we are living somewhere, we have lived, or we have been living somewhere. We need to make up own minds, to express own thought.

I was born in Poland, in 1970. There was no English at school. I learned American on my own until 14 years old, thus independence always has been my element, with the regard.

Grammar development

The same time we might be wielding book definitions, our human minds keep a natural habit to associate time and place. The two co-occur in our daily reality: we do not think about time without place, and we do not think about place in separation from time. Computer virtual realities might isolate time from place, yet human grammar has not evolved in a virtual reality.

In our earthly reality, we map cognitively. Our cognitive maps do not have the exactness of geographical measurement, but they are important in our finding way home, or getting to school or work, in most economical spatial and temporal extents. Human cognitive mapping joins time and place. Would human grammar join them, as well?

There are a few basic words to talk about space, they are ON, IN, and TO. We people live ON Earth, we give at least psychological borders to places IN which we are, and we can learn and remember ways TO places.

Let us think about the grammatical Aspects most kids are able to use before school tuition. They are the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect.

The Simple: we can use it to talk about thinking and feeling, or habits — all that does not change often. We can have the habit to do something often, as well as... never. Let us think about a cognitive surface. The Simple Aspect would help tell what generally exists, existed, or we think is going to exist ON a cognitive map.

The Progressive: we can use it to tell that something is IN progress, IN its course. We could picture activity or faculties IN an area.

The Perfect: we can use it to tell what has happened, had happened, or we think will have happened TO some moment in time. The moment does not have to mark the end of the activity or faculty. We may picture the Aspect as a way TO a place.

Integrating the grammatical Aspect with our spatio-temporal orientation, we would use the prepositions ON, IN, and TO as our cognitive variables.

Why think about variables? Grammatical tense patterns have not changed in centuries.

Cognitive variables are not "changeables". They are values we can apply flexibly. Let us remember: grammar books can give rules on proper phrasing. They cannot tell what we want to talk about.

Importantly, our decision making with variables is most likely to become much faster and more efficient. The variables can operate on all classic grammar rules, without the risk of confusion that may come with following book phrasing on own grammar.

At the same time, we do not have to believe we are discovering principles in human thinking. If we can make wheels or build houses, this does not mean we have wheels or houses in our heads. Likewise, it does not mean we might have inborn ideas for wheels or houses.

However, just as we can learn to choose a good place and vehicle, we can learn to use variables. Everybody learns, also own native tongue.

This is how we can visualize a basic scope for grammatical Aspect. Let us mind, we do not need to view language as a system. Systems are finite. We can think about grammar as a logical set or scope that can provide for infinite utterances.

As we cannot have our grammars only depending on particular geographical areas, we can think about an abstract cognitive extent that would work for us wherever we are.


Classic grammars are products of human thought as well, same as this generative grammar here. The phrase "the grammatical Aspect" was made by a human being. The decision if to consider cognitive variables belongs with everyone individually.

I am a university graduate, philologist Master of Arts, today. Following up with my invented way to study, let us compare Perfect Progressive examples, as in grammar books, and note a general pattern for it.

We can compare patterns for other Aspects, and think how the Perfect Progressive might be built.

We tell head verbs from auxiliaries. For the Perfect Progressive, we can picture the auxiliary be from the Progressive to take the place for the head verb in the Perfect pattern.

The Perfect Progressive
The Perfect Progressive | Source

We also can visualize the Perfect Progressive as a merger of cognitive variables. The variables would be our spatio-temporal IN and TO. The Aspect would help tell what has been progressing IN a stretch of time we refer TO another time.

To name our fourth variable, we can choose AT: the word "into" means the same as "in" or "to" alone, in formal contexts.


Our visualization is not to fix a picture for language. It is only to help. We do not have to stay with the same visuals for all time. We can present our mapping on one extent, or a few extents.


The language journey as I have called it, because we can use the variables for grammar as well as moving about, has more inventions: linguistic relativity, time frame, and modal information pool. Feel welcome.



    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • teresapelka profile imageAUTHOR

      Teresa Pelka 

      3 years ago from Dublin, Ireland


      Thank you for reading. :)

    • Rafiq23 profile image

      Muhammad Rafiq 

      3 years ago from Pakistan

      Interesting and really informative article , Teresapelka!

    • teresapelka profile imageAUTHOR

      Teresa Pelka 

      6 years ago from Dublin, Ireland

      @Tom Rubenoff

      Thank you for reading.

    • Tom Rubenoff profile image

      Tom rubenoff 

      6 years ago from United States

      Thank you very much for explaining this to me. I appreciate and wish you good fortune in all your endeavors.

    • teresapelka profile imageAUTHOR

      Teresa Pelka 

      6 years ago from Dublin, Ireland

      @Tom Rubenoff,

      What 'happens' doesn't have to be a rule, a principle:

      - Many people learn. Many people happen to experience failure, too.

      My intention is to remain non-qualifying to an extent. Failure is failure. I wouldn't say, 'some people fail', like - this is their nature to fail?

      I know from my teaching experience - please remember I'm not advertising and I'm not likely to begin advertising soon - that many people fail because they never get the guidance to actually enhance their language potential.

      As a private teacher, I happened to be a kind of an 'emergency' - a parent telephoning and saying his or her daughter or son would fail their school term - 'any help, anywhere?'

      I happened to be hired by people who had the ambition for their sons or daughters to be the top of the class.

      There were people who just wanted to have lessons, felt it was better than not having them.

      Whatever the circumstances, people want quality for money and I provided it. My use of the verb 'to happen' comes from my experience.

      English is not obligatory in many educational systems. It has become mandatory, actually recently - an option in some of the countries of the ex Eastern bloc. However, once you take it up, you succeed, or fail the school term.

      Feel welcome to visit my grammar blog,

      I could also send you a free download for your evaluation. :)

      Finally, students happen to remember rules 'for ever and ever', too. The grammar formulations happen to go in conflict in test and exam situations, especially when the test or exam takes oral skill.

    • Tom Rubenoff profile image

      Tom rubenoff 

      6 years ago from United States

      I am not being sarcastic. In the first instance the sentence is unnecessarily complicated by the phrase "happen to," making the second meaning possible. Better, "More and more people experience failure" or better still, "More and more people fail." In the second instance, the word "become" is confusing, and would much better replaced by "are," but more importantly could be made much clearer by simplifying syntax: "Students memorize rules of grammar for tests and then forget these rules."

    • teresapelka profile imageAUTHOR

      Teresa Pelka 

      6 years ago from Dublin, Ireland

      @Tom Rubenoff,

      Let me add that as a teacher I saw human pessimism about learning English (I always made it clear that I could teach American - naturally, everyone is capable of English to an extent ;) - human frustration, yes, verging on anger, as well as these 'negative' feelings going away with success.

      I put negative in quotes, as I wouldn't divide feelings in positive or negative feelings. I hope you admit this actually could be only bi-polar.

      I am not advertising now and I do not intend to advertise for some time - I am about to finish my work on Part Two; the whole of this stage of the journey is four parts.

      I can work the Advanced and Proficient levels after I market the Intermediate; the picture for the intended book cover shows on this page.

      I hope you understand that I don't want some sarcastic attitudes.

    • teresapelka profile imageAUTHOR

      Teresa Pelka 

      6 years ago from Dublin, Ireland

      English, especially American English, has become the language of choice in many countries to have previously limited access to American resources for political reasons.

      More and more people learn the language; this also has a side effect, such as greater numbers of people having had some unsuccessful experiences trying to learn English (there is no difference as regards difficulty between American and British, naturally).

      I can't see how a conjecture like failure being the reason for human existence might even relate to my article.

      Grammar rules become memorized by humans - memorization may impede the learning process. I was a teacher for more than 10 years, never thought about trying to teach any UFO or animal, though according to some uses I don't necessarily follow, I taught aliens, that is, foreigners.

      I wouldn't be missing out on a significant experience, would I? ;)

    • Tom Rubenoff profile image

      Tom rubenoff 

      6 years ago from United States

      Tell me, does "More and more people happen to experience failure" mean that more people experience failure, or does it mean that the reason for the existence of more and more people is failure?

      Also, does "Grammar rules become memorized" mean that people memorize rules of grammar, or does it mean that the rules get themselves memorized somehow?

      Thank you. :)


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)