learning behaviour in animals
Types of learning
Def.: Learning is a permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Learning occurs through memory formation: a- short term memory: initially formed due to increase in the electrical activity of the brain “action potential”, it lasts for few seconds or minutes. b- long term memory: formed later due to intraneuronal protein synthesis, it remains throughout the whole animal life.
Def.: if the animal is subjected to repeated stimulus which is not associated with either reward or punishment, the animal learn gradually not to respond . It is the simplest form of learning. It is called negative form of learning as there is no acquiring of new response but loss of old one
EXAMPLES:- Horse pasture near railway station; firstly the animal is disturbed by noise, by time it learn not to respond.
-Bird nesting in the busy highway.
-Rats and its startle response on hearing sudden loud voice . Birds and scare crew; firstly they disturbed by its movement, by time they stand on its arms preening their feather after having large meal of grain.
Adaptive function of habituation:
1-Adjustment of the animal response to the surrounding environment.
2-Focusing animal energy and attention to the important events.
3-Play important role in development of young animal behaviour that show inherited fear response against many environmental objects, by habituation they learn to distinguish between harmful and harmless objects.
DEF.: rapid formation of permanent close relationship between the animal and a characteristic environmental object “usually its mother”.
Characters of imprinting: -Occurs during short definite period of the animal's life called critical period, sensitive period or susceptible period.
-During this period the animal is highly sensitive to stimulus come from the surrounding environment and is highly susceptible to rapid learning process.
-If this period passes without occurrence of this behavioural relation, it will never occur so it’s called critical period.
© 2014 Ahmed Ata