Influence of Using Audio-Lingual Method on Students’ Reading Skill
English is one of the foreign languages for Indonesian students that must be learnt in school since kindergarten level until uuniversity level. English is considered as a difficult subject for the Indonesian students, because English is completely different from Indonesian language being look at from the system of structure, pronunciation and vocabulary. In learning English, it means we learn a foreign language. It needs hard work to learn it. We must capable or master not only the four basic skills, those are listening, speaking, reading and writing but also the language components, such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. In order to support the development our English and to obtain an English language skill effectively.
As one of language skill, reading plays an important role. Reading is form of nonverbal communication, reading enables the students to understand and comprehend language trough written form like text or passage, but some students thought that reading is perhaps the most difficult language skill to learn. However, in Indonesia the limitation in mastering English is influenced by learned reading and just focused on just how students read and try to translate.
Reading is an important skill that has be mastered by people, especially by professionals such as teacher, writer and journalist.
Reading will hold it role even in the information era, when the information can be found in every audio visual electronic media like television, video, cassette, etc.
Through reading we can get a lot of information, knowledge, enjoyment and even problem solving. As matter of fact is the one who eager reading being smarter than the one who never cares with reading. Reading becomes important skill of language teaching because of its purpose is to enable student to read and understand text material correctly.
There are two main reasons for reading: reading for pleasure and reading for information. Reading for pleasure is reading for enjoyment which may vary in to follow ones favorite sport, comic, article, fairy tale and movie program and reading for information is reading to study for a goal\such as to obtain factual information and solve problem.
As we know one characteristic of good readers that has been noted in the literature is that they are able to make prediction about the text they read while they are reading.
The methods are expected to be able to understanding reading with students of all ages, including first grades responding to text read aloud. The methods exposes the students to various points of view and to the ways of supporting those viewpoints, therefore, it helps students to learn the reading content as well as teach them how to reader new content.
There are several ways of approaching reading. The audio lingual method will be considered first- in an audio lingual approach, dialogue sentences are learned through oral imitation than these same sentences are read in graphic form this reading is at first choral, the class reading after the teacher or a tape model, next come unison reading in smaller group. After a successful period of unison reading, individuals are upon to read. When memorized or partially memorized material in being read. It is essential to ensure that students are actively reading from the text, and not merely repeating sentences buy heart upon recognition of initial words or phrases.
One of the popular methods that has a basis “language is habit’ is Audio- Lingual Method. This method is based on the principles that language learning is habit formation; the method fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-learning this method also based on the behavioral psychology, that use stimulus-response-reinforcement. The audio-Lingual Method is a style of language teaching and is based mainly upon the behaviorist theory basically states that human could be trained through a system of reinforcement, where correct use would result in positive feedback while incorrect would receive negative. However, it is thought the most effective way to solve this problem for students to “over-learn” the language that studied through extensive repetition and drills or practice. Therefore, the students will make a set of habit and response automatic.
1. Audio-Lingual Method
The Audio-Lingual Method, or the Army Method, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages, that based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement-correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of trait would receive negative feedback.
Based on the statement above, the writer concludes that audio Lingual Method is a Method that deals with a behaviorist theory that uses stimulus, response, and reinforcement. This methodalso emphasizes on speaking and listening and the learning is a result of habit formation.
The principles (characteristics) of the Audio-Lingual Method be summed up in the following list
a. New material is presented in dialogue form
b. There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and over learning.
c. Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive drills
d. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills
e. There is little or no grammatical explanation : grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation
f. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context
g. There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids
h. Great importance attached to pronunciation
2. The Process of Teaching Reading by Using Audio-Lingual Method
The steps of teaching reading skill by using Audio-Lingual Method were stated below;
First step, the teacher enters the classroom and giving greeting to the students. Then the teacher presents a reading text which containing some passages. The teacher read begin with reading alouda text in accuracy and expressiveness and the students read by silent reading.
Second step, the teacher continuous to ask the students to close the book.While the books are closed. Occasionally the teacher will ask a question to make sure that everything is clear. Next, the new words, phrases, and idioms are written on the board. They are pronounced and used in original sentences.
Third step, the students open their books and the teacher reads the first part of the selection aloud. The selection is now read by student in the class, alternating silent and oral reading.
Finally. The teacher will review the text, expand upon the text by adding a few more lines, and drill the new lines.
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Audio-Lingual Method
a. Advantages of Using Audio-Lingual Method
The writer concludes the Advantages of Audio-Lingual Method from the book Jack C. Richard, “Approaches and Method in Language Teaching”
1. In Audio-Lingual Method, the students should over learn and given drills, language learning is a process of habit formation. So the students can make sentence patterns automatically without stopping to think.
2. The process of teaching in Audio-Lingual Method involves extensive oral instruction. Therefore, the students can increase their pronunciations and speaking ability.
3. The students can improve their listening ability. Because in teaching learning process in Audio-Lingual Method, sometimes teacher use tape and language lab, to hear dialogue from it.
b. Disadvantages of Using Audio-Lingual Method
Disadvantages of Using Audio-Lingual Method While Audio-Lingual teaching is capable of filling an entire class hour with aural-oral language, it is quite possible to argue that audio-ligula’s does not meet this requirement as well as other methods. While the presentation of a reading text, for example, may take up a full period, students spend very little of this time focusing on the message, which is presented over and over. Besides that, pattern practice may also be comprehensible in theory, but students probably do not attend to meaning after the first few repetition. Then, over-use of drill and repetition, procedures such as not allowing students’ access to the written word in early stages may also add to anxiety.
 H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, (San Francisco: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2000), 4th Edition, p. 74
Stephen D. Krashen, Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, (New York: Pergamon Press, 1982), p. 131