ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Theory of music (2)

Updated on September 8, 2014

Some more theory

We press on with our job of learning theory of music. We consolidate what we already know and move on to new things. We will learn some more scales in sharp keys and then look at some flat keys. Music theory is all about writing and describing music.


The photos are all my own.

Scale of A major

Scale of A major (written)

Sharps and flats

We ended the last lens looking at the D major scale. If you use the rule we used before we will go up five notes to the note A and start our next scale here. Again we take the sharp notes from D major and use them and then sharpen the G as well. You will see that the pattern of tones and semitones is the same in all the scales we have used so far. The pattern is TTS T TTS.

You can carry on with this method until you have used seven sharps.

But now we will turn to the flat keys.If we think back to C major with no sharps and no flats, we can now move down five notes to F, start on that note but add a flat. In this case B flat. The flats and sharps keep to a pattern. If you have one sharp it is always F#, and if you have one flat it is always B flat. If you learn the following silly sentence it will give you the order of sharps, just taking the first letter of each word, Five Cats Go Down An Empty Barrel.

Backwards will give you the order of flats B E A D G C F which is also handy because it starts off spelling "bead" and you then have only three more to remember. But before this you have to remember to start with the C major scale with no sharps or flats and then go up five notes for sharp keys and down five notes for flat keys. Below here is the scale of F major.

Scale of F major(written)

Black notes can be both sharps and flats

F# is the black note to the right of F, but that note is also to the left of G and can be known as G flat. This is very confusing at first, but I am just mentioning it in passing at the moment. You don't need to worry about it, all will become clear as you progress. Just fix it in your mind that sharps are always one semitone to the right of the original note; flats are always one semitone to the left of the original note. This leads us on the ask "Where is E sharp?" Take the above rule and go one semitone to the right of E. You are on the note we previously called F. This note is also E#, even though it is a white note. You will probably need to read this through again to get it fixed in your mind. This is, however looking into the future rather. Maybe it would be best to come back to it later Theory of music is quite complicated, but logical..

,

Scale of B flat major

Scale of B flat major

The key signature

In Theory of music 1 I wrote the scales with their sharps written next to the note they affected. In this lens I have put the sharps and flats together at the beginning of the scale. This is called the key signature and tells us, in the case of B flat major, that all the B's and E's are flatted Someone playing the notes has to remember to use these two flats all the time unless they are shown differently. The way to show this is to put in an "accidental." If you want to change a flat, or a sharp, back to normal you put a "natural" before the note. A natural can be seen in the photo below.

The natural

Length of note

How do we show quick and slow notes?

This is going to be fun. In Europe we call the longest note a semibreve, but in America you call it a whole note. The next is a minim, or half note. Then shorter again is the crotchet, or quarter note; the quaver or eighth note; the semi-quaver or 16th note etc. I show these in the chart above and show that each one is worth two of the note below.

This will help you to understand length of note

The A major arpeggio

To form the A major arpeggio we follow the rule shown in Theory of Music 1. From the scale we take the first, third and fifth notes, plus the top A to form the arpeggio. See if you can work out what to do to form the F major and B flat major arpeggios. Notice that you do not use all of the sharps and flats involved in the scales.

Did you find this lens helpful?

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • SayGuddaycom profile image

      SayGuddaycom 

      6 years ago

      Brilliant

    • asiliveandbreathe profile image

      asiliveandbreathe 

      7 years ago

      Your Theory of Music series is just what the budding musician needs.

      Glad you have covered sharps & flats or, as I call them, "sharps & blunts"

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      7 years ago

      Hey there Liz , proud to say that I added this site and a few others of your to my http://www.squidoo.com/best-music-squidoo site! Keep up the excellent and informative work!

    • JoyfulPamela2 profile image

      JoyfulPamela2 

      8 years ago from Pennsylvania, USA

      A+!

    • ajgodinho profile image

      Anthony Godinho 

      9 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Great lens and I'm sure it will help those who are interested in learning to play music! You did a wonderful job with all the pictures and explanations!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)