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Phenomenology

Updated on August 23, 2010
Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl

Phenomenology is a philosophic method based on the conscious experience of phenomena. Phenomena include both acts (for example, perceiving, thinking, believing, and willing) and the things to which they are related (material objects, ideas, wishes). Phenomenology was developed by the German philosopher Edmund Husserl in the early 20th century.

Husserl sought to place philosophy on a scientific basis and thus unify all the sciences through universal truths tested by experience. He cast aside all presuppositions about reality (such as those used by psychologism, positivism, and relativism) based on the objective inductive method that draws conclusions from empirical observations of fact. Instead, he contended that conclusions must derive from the subjective consciousness, which is always "of something"- that is, of phenomena.

In experiencing phenomena, one intuits (immediately grasps) general concepts, or essences (relationships, values, qualities), which, in opposition to the phenomenalist view of objects as merely sensations, have a transcendent existence outside one's experience. Although such men as Moritz Geiger, Max Scheler, and Martin Heidegger modified Husserl's views, they applied the phenomenological method to such nonscientific areas as aesthetics, law, and ethics, and to existentialism.

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    • Paradise7 profile image

      Paradise7 

      7 years ago from Upstate New York

      Good hub. That was some interesting work they did, study a phenomena subjectively instead of empirically.

    • one2get2no profile image

      Philip Cooper 

      7 years ago from Olney

      Very very interesting...never heard of this before...thank you.

    • profile image

      Medkh9 

      7 years ago

      i like this hub its really great i learnt a new terminology thanks

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