ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Phylum Porifera: General Characters and more

Updated on November 11, 2013
Poriferes or Sponges
Poriferes or Sponges

Sponges constitute the Phylum Porifera ( L. porus, pore+ ferre, to bear) which are the simplest type of metazoans. The term Porifera was coined by Robert Grant and it means “pore bearers” due to the presence of tiny pores on their body. The study of Porifera or sponges is called Parazoology. The Phylum Porifera include more than 5000 animal species, mostly marine, but includes about 150 fresh water inhabitants also. They found in all seas, wherever there are rocks, shells, submerged timbers, or coral to provide a suitable substratum. Most sponges prefer relatively shallow water, but some groups including most glass sponges, live in deep water.

Barell sponge
Barell sponge
Yellow tube Sponge
Yellow tube Sponge

General Characters:

  • They are the most primitive metazoans.
  • Sponges are multicellular animals lacking specialized tissues and organs.
  • Body grows to various shapes. Most of them are asymmetrical and some are radially symmetrical.
  • They are diploblastic animals[ (Having two germ layers ectoderm(pinacoderm) and endoderm(chanoderm)].
  • They are simple animals having cellular level of organization. Cells are not organised to tissues or organs.

  • The bodies of the sponges are supported by spicules made up of calcium, silica or sponging fibres.

  • The name Porifera means pore bearing animals. The body wall has numerous pores called ostia. The body encloses large cavity called spongocoel. Water enters the spongocoel through the ostia and inter connecting canals present in the body wall. All inter connecting are collectively called canal system. Water leaves the spongocoel through a large aperture called osculam. The canals inside the body are linked by flagellated collar cells or choanocytes. The food particles present in water current are taken by these cells.

  • They lack a metazoan type of digestive system. They rely entirely on intracellular digestion.
  • Mouth, digestive cavity and anus are absent.
  • Nervous system and sense organs are also absent.
  • Reproduction is both by sexual or asexual means.
  • Asexual reproduction takes place by budding or by specialized cell called gemmules. Gemmules develop into new sponges during favourable conditions.
  • Life cycle includes ciliated free swimming larvae called amphiblastula or parenchymula.
  • Sponges show greater power of regeration.

Classes of Phylum Porifera

Phlum Porifera include three classes, chiefly based on the type of its skeleton. The skeleton of some sponges are utilised for many purposes such as washing, bathing, scrubbing, mopping etc.

1. Class- Calcarea:These include the sponges with skeleton of calcareous spicules.

Example: Leucosolenia, Sycon

2. Class Hexactinellida:They include glass sponges which are most symmetrical.

Example: Euplectella

3. Class Demospongia: Largest class of sponges with brilliant coloration .Skeleton formed of siliceous spicules and sponging fibres.

Example: Euspongia (Bath sponge), Spongilla (Fresh water sponge), Thena, Ciliona

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      sheiny lou 4 years ago

      it really helps me to our activity.. thank you..

    • profile image

      barbie 3 years ago

      nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiccccccccccccccceeeeeeeeeeeeeee

      goooooooooooooooooood

    • profile image

      sharad desale 3 years ago

      Give me please animals phylum and vegetative character

    • profile image

      kachu 2 years ago

      It is really helpful.....................

    • profile image

      vejjii 2 years ago

      what about the life cycle?

    • profile image

      hansika sarath 2 years ago

      it's very helpful 4 our studies

    • profile image

      Mounesh Balurgi 2 years ago

      What is this life cycle ? life cycle are all animal cycle are changing ? Why changing cycles

    • profile image

      mavi... 2 years ago

      Your notes r best....

    • profile image

      Oona 23 months ago

      Best notes

      Helped a lot in completing

      my assignment

    • profile image

      Kamalika Ray 23 months ago

      How can I get the family tree of Non-chordate animals of taxnomi?

    • profile image

      santosh Baddukonda 22 months ago

      It is so useful for zoologists

    • profile image

      poojitha 22 months ago

      it is usefull to make my assingment .and if much more information it is good

    • profile image

      Abhishek Singh 21 months ago

      There are given many hard words but this hard word are very useful in daily life.

    • profile image

      Bedar 21 months ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      MD Taushif Alam 17 months ago

      Well.......

    • profile image

      arnold 16 months ago

      GOOD!!!

    • profile image

      Angle 14 months ago

      Silent character of phlyum porifera???? Plzz

    • profile image

      Momi 11 months ago

      A complete information.. thank u

    • profile image

      Aakriti 8 months ago

      Very good notes

    • profile image

      Sana 8 months ago

      Its so clear to read

    • profile image

      Piyush jhariya 6 months ago

      I like this ..

    • profile image

      Aamir Farooq 5 months ago

      Nice...................

    • profile image

      Hilal Ahmad 5 months ago

      Nice

    Click to Rate This Article