ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Phylum Porifera: General Characters and more

Updated on November 11, 2013
Poriferes or Sponges
Poriferes or Sponges

Sponges constitute the Phylum Porifera ( L. porus, pore+ ferre, to bear) which are the simplest type of metazoans. The term Porifera was coined by Robert Grant and it means “pore bearers” due to the presence of tiny pores on their body. The study of Porifera or sponges is called Parazoology. The Phylum Porifera include more than 5000 animal species, mostly marine, but includes about 150 fresh water inhabitants also. They found in all seas, wherever there are rocks, shells, submerged timbers, or coral to provide a suitable substratum. Most sponges prefer relatively shallow water, but some groups including most glass sponges, live in deep water.

Barell sponge
Barell sponge
Yellow tube Sponge
Yellow tube Sponge

General Characters:

  • They are the most primitive metazoans.
  • Sponges are multicellular animals lacking specialized tissues and organs.
  • Body grows to various shapes. Most of them are asymmetrical and some are radially symmetrical.
  • They are diploblastic animals[ (Having two germ layers ectoderm(pinacoderm) and endoderm(chanoderm)].
  • They are simple animals having cellular level of organization. Cells are not organised to tissues or organs.

  • The bodies of the sponges are supported by spicules made up of calcium, silica or sponging fibres.

  • The name Porifera means pore bearing animals. The body wall has numerous pores called ostia. The body encloses large cavity called spongocoel. Water enters the spongocoel through the ostia and inter connecting canals present in the body wall. All inter connecting are collectively called canal system. Water leaves the spongocoel through a large aperture called osculam. The canals inside the body are linked by flagellated collar cells or choanocytes. The food particles present in water current are taken by these cells.

  • They lack a metazoan type of digestive system. They rely entirely on intracellular digestion.
  • Mouth, digestive cavity and anus are absent.
  • Nervous system and sense organs are also absent.
  • Reproduction is both by sexual or asexual means.
  • Asexual reproduction takes place by budding or by specialized cell called gemmules. Gemmules develop into new sponges during favourable conditions.
  • Life cycle includes ciliated free swimming larvae called amphiblastula or parenchymula.
  • Sponges show greater power of regeration.

Classes of Phylum Porifera

Phlum Porifera include three classes, chiefly based on the type of its skeleton. The skeleton of some sponges are utilised for many purposes such as washing, bathing, scrubbing, mopping etc.

1. Class- Calcarea:These include the sponges with skeleton of calcareous spicules.

Example: Leucosolenia, Sycon

2. Class Hexactinellida:They include glass sponges which are most symmetrical.

Example: Euplectella

3. Class Demospongia: Largest class of sponges with brilliant coloration .Skeleton formed of siliceous spicules and sponging fibres.

Example: Euspongia (Bath sponge), Spongilla (Fresh water sponge), Thena, Ciliona

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      Supriya Kshirsagar 

      13 months ago

      Helped to create my own notes

    • profile image

      banashankat 

      13 months ago

      god bless you sir for giving this information

    • profile image

      Hilal Ahmad 

      20 months ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      Aamir Farooq 

      20 months ago

      Nice...................

    • profile image

      Piyush jhariya 

      21 months ago

      I like this ..

    • profile image

      Sana 

      23 months ago

      Its so clear to read

    • profile image

      Aakriti 

      23 months ago

      Very good notes

    • profile image

      Momi 

      2 years ago

      A complete information.. thank u

    • profile image

      Angle 

      2 years ago

      Silent character of phlyum porifera???? Plzz

    • profile image

      arnold 

      2 years ago

      GOOD!!!

    • profile image

      MD Taushif Alam 

      2 years ago

      Well.......

    • profile image

      Bedar 

      3 years ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      Abhishek Singh 

      3 years ago

      There are given many hard words but this hard word are very useful in daily life.

    • profile image

      poojitha 

      3 years ago

      it is usefull to make my assingment .and if much more information it is good

    • profile image

      santosh Baddukonda 

      3 years ago

      It is so useful for zoologists

    • profile image

      Kamalika Ray 

      3 years ago

      How can I get the family tree of Non-chordate animals of taxnomi?

    • profile image

      Oona 

      3 years ago

      Best notes

      Helped a lot in completing

      my assignment

    • profile image

      mavi... 

      3 years ago

      Your notes r best....

    • profile image

      Mounesh Balurgi 

      3 years ago

      What is this life cycle ? life cycle are all animal cycle are changing ? Why changing cycles

    • profile image

      hansika sarath 

      4 years ago

      it's very helpful 4 our studies

    • profile image

      vejjii 

      4 years ago

      what about the life cycle?

    • profile image

      kachu 

      4 years ago

      It is really helpful.....................

    • profile image

      sharad desale 

      4 years ago

      Give me please animals phylum and vegetative character

    • profile image

      barbie 

      5 years ago

      nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiccccccccccccccceeeeeeeeeeeeeee

      goooooooooooooooooood

    • profile image

      sheiny lou 

      5 years ago

      it really helps me to our activity.. thank you..

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)