ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Remembering Challenger

Updated on January 28, 2017

One Memorial to the Seven Brave Souls of Challenger

Challenger Memorial at Arlington National Cemetary
Challenger Memorial at Arlington National Cemetary

The First Space Shuttle Disaster

January 28, 1986 was an unforgettable day for Americans. Many of us just went to work as usual, perhaps not even thinking about the day's space shuttle launch. After all, by this time the shuttle missions seemed almost routine. This mission had been delayed before, so it wouldn't have surprised anyone if there were yet another delay. The weather in Florida had been unusually cold that year. It was just another weekday morning in America--until it wasn't anymore.

My generation grew up with the space program. We watched live as Neil Armstrong took those first steps on the moon. We held our breath until Apollo 13 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean. And we watched in horror as seven of the best-trained astronauts on Earth died in the line of duty. Years later, we also had to hear the news that the shuttle Columbia had disintegrated--another total loss of a shuttle crew.

(Photos from Wikimedia Commons)

Above is a picture of the Challenger Memorial in Arlington Cemetary.

Those Who Saw Will Never Forget

There is Nothing Routine About Space Flight

Never Take Success for Granted

In my office, we heard the news from a colleague who had taken an early lunch. He came back with a shocked look on his face and told us that "the shuttle blew up." At first I thought I had heard wrong--after all, we Americans had the space flight business well in hand, right?

Without internet or cell phones, those who had not watched the launch live on television soon heard the news from family members at home. We hoped for news that somehow the crew had survived the explosion. We watched on the evening news as the unforgettable launch footage was shown again. Even watching the film, it was hard to believe we had really lost those seven astronauts.

After the initial shock, every American wanted to know how such a disaster could happen. We had the best engineers in the world, so what went wrong? In the following weeks and months information began to come out. The Rogers Commission, tasked with investigating the accident, found one problem was a culture at NASA that allowed certain warnings to be ignored for the sake of avoiding repeated launch delays. Challenger launched after experiencing temperatures well below the temperatures at which key components of the shuttle had been tested. The failure of a single O-ring seal started the chain of events that ended in the breaking apart of the shuttle.

The Last Crew of Challenger - Mission STS 51-L

Challenger Crew
Challenger Crew

Back row: Ellison S. Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Greg Jarvis, and Judy Resnik

Front row: Michael J. Smith (pilot,) Dick Scobee (commander,) and Ron McNair

This mission was watched live by schoolchildren across America because of Christa McAuliffe, the first member of the Teacher in Space Program to go on a shuttle mission. She had a series of lessons prepared that she would have taught from orbit. President Reagan announced the Teacher in Space program in 1984. In 1998 Barbara Morgan, McAuliffe's backup for the Challenger mission, went into space as a Mission Specialist aboard Endeavor.

Where were you when you heard about the Challenger?

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      slappywalker 

      4 years ago

      I was in elementary school when it happened. I'll never forget that day because I actually had to stay home from school because I was sick. I was on the couch watching the launch by myself, and it took me a while to realize just how bad the situation was.

    • SamuraiMarine profile image

      Samuel Wright 

      4 years ago from Bakersfield, Ca.

      I was in my Mechanical Drawing class when this happened. I too was a child of the space-race and loved every time National Geographic released another issue about Apollo, Soyuz, Skylab, etc. When this happened I think there was not a single dry eye in the place.

      And then again with Columbia.

      Space and Space travel are dangerous. Astronauts know this when they get in these vessels and head up. It takes a special breed of human to do this.

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      @longlakelifestyle: I'm so glad this was informative. Thanks for stopping by.

    • profile image

      longlakelifestyle 

      5 years ago

      I didn't even know about Challenger. Thank you for this lens.

    • MissRubyStars profile image

      MissRubyStars 

      5 years ago

      In class (2nd grade)..the teachers brought in a TV to watch during class.

    • Carol Houle profile image

      Carol Houle 

      5 years ago from Montreal

      I was watching it. I still remember the shock, the chill and the goosebumps all over my arms and head.

    • Elizabeth Braun profile image

      Elizabeth Braun 

      5 years ago from Sheffiled, UK

      I can't remember where I was, as I was only 14 at the time - perhaps I was at school! Still, I do remember it and have always been glad that, much as I'm keen on travel, I'm very happy to stay *on* the Earth! Poor people who died...=(

    • MrAusAdventure profile image

      Bill 

      5 years ago from Gold Coast, Australia

      I was a teenager when this event happened and I remember it clearly. It was all over the TV even here in Australia and repeated over and over again. It was hard to believe that it was happening whilst watching the footage. Although I was aware it happened in 1986, it still does not seem like 27 years ago already!

      Congrats on LOTD.

    • DreamingBoomer profile image

      Karen Kay 

      5 years ago from Jackson, MS

      In Criminal Justice Class at Southern Miss.

    • weakbond profile image

      Nnadi bonaventure Chima 

      5 years ago from Johanesburg

      Highly informative lens , thanks for taking us down memory lane to that fateful day

    • fyrdragon350 profile image

      fyrdragon350 

      5 years ago

      i was watching tv that morning watching the launch on the news..i was so sad.

    • shewins profile image

      shewins 

      5 years ago

      I was a young mom at that time. I saw it on TV. I wasn't watching the launch, but of course as soon as I turned on the TV it was on every channel. Great job on this lens, congrats on winning the "My Generation" quest.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      5 years ago

      I was having lunch at a restaurant with my boss and a client. A horribly unforgettable moment. Congratulations on getting LotD!

    • amosvee profile image

      amosvee 

      5 years ago

      I was at work, where we did not have a TV. I think a customer came in and told us. I watched the video above, of the launch, and as always, I have the strange impulse to hope that it won't explode.

    • Mary Stephenson profile image

      Mary Stephenson 

      5 years ago from California

      I was home watching it on TV, that was pretty shocking. All the things we like not to have to remember such as President Kennedy being shot, a sad bit of history.

    • SavioC profile image

      SavioC 

      5 years ago

      I was in college when I heard about it. It came as a big shock as we in India always look up to America and when things like this happens it always feels bad specially for the crew and their families. God bless their souls.

    • SavioC profile image

      SavioC 

      5 years ago

      I was in college when I heard about it. It came as a big shock as we in India always look up to America and when things like this happens it always feels bad specially for the crew and their families. God bless their souls.

    • girlfriendfactory profile image

      girlfriendfactory 

      5 years ago

      To this day I can't look at the footage, a picture, read about it or talk about it without tears. I was in high school when it happened and most school kids watched or heard announcements about what happened due to Christa McAuliffe. The news coverage was relentless that entire day, and for a solid week or two it's all anyone talked about, especially in my family. My grandfather had worked out at NASA for several years in the VAB building and even sat in Mission Control during the Gemini and Apollo launches, right through the launch to the moon, shortly after I was born right across from the Cape. We moved to Colorado in late 1969 and he no longer worked for Morton-Thiokol, but you can imagine how closely he followed it anyway. Such a devastating tragedy.

      Congrats on your LoTD!!!

    • joseph-sottile-16 profile image

      joseph-sottile-16 

      5 years ago

      I was in the teacher's lounge watching the launch when disaster hit. I will never forget that moment.

    • ghoststorylover profile image

      ghoststorylover 

      5 years ago

      I remember that day like it was yesterday. I was in school when the principle told us what happened. So sad.

    • JoanieMRuppel54 profile image

      Joanie Ruppel 

      5 years ago from Keller, Texas

      I just have to add, I tried to watch the footage you provided and had to stop it, couldn't rewatch that fateful moment. My stomach is in my throat. I remember writing a letter to the McAuliffe family after it happened.

    • JoanieMRuppel54 profile image

      Joanie Ruppel 

      5 years ago from Keller, Texas

      At home babysitting a playgroup and we had Sesame Street on PBS so there was not a TV interruption. My ER doctor friend called and asked if she could drop her child off so she could go to the hospital. (In an extreme emergency when it is unknown what really happened, we assume it could be a national issue so doctors are called to their hospitals.) She is the one who told me what happened.

    • profile image

      knysna 

      5 years ago

      I was ready to finish high school and join the army and this incident was a reality check, one would never think that with all that technology and money put into a program like this that something like this could happen

    • delia-delia profile image

      Delia 

      5 years ago

      Congratulations on LOTD! I was living in Missouri and as I was driving home from my grocery shopping, I was listing to the radio as the announcement came...I could barely breath...all I kept on saying over and over, oh God why? Finding out about the O rings just made things worse.

    • sagebrushmama profile image

      sagebrushmama 

      5 years ago

      It was my 21st birthday, and I had gotten out of Spanish class when I heard. A friend greeted me not with birthday regards but rather, "Did you hear about the space shuttle?" I completed my education degree a little over two years later in Math education, and I still think about the teacher, Christa McAuliffe, and her family's sacrifice and loss that day.

    • Leiping profile image

      Leiping 

      5 years ago

      I don't really remember because I was ten years old and here in the Netherlands they did not spend too much time on the launch I think. I only remember that they talked about the teacher Christa McAuliffe being onboard.

    • Swisstoons profile image

      Thomas F. Wuthrich 

      5 years ago from Michigan

      Like everyone else, I remember exactly where I was and what I was doing. What a horrible day that was.

    • jemacb profile image

      jemacb 

      5 years ago

      I would never ever ever forget that moment. Saw it on TV while at University. Very sad indeed.

    • hkhollands profile image

      hkhollands 

      5 years ago

      I was in Algebra class, and I remember my teacher crying. She said Christa McAuliffe would forever be a hero to all women. I enjoyed your lens.

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      @Namsak: It warms the heart to know that nations come together in support.

    • profile image

      Namsak 

      5 years ago

      It was not only the USA which was shocked and saddened by the loss of Challenger. We in the UK - especially those of us who followed the space programme with keen interest were also stunned and saddened. We will not forget them either nor will we forget Gus Grissom, Ed White or Roger Chaffee.

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      @Mellithorpe: How awful to be so close and know there was nothing you could do.

    • Mellithorpe profile image

      Mellithorpe 

      5 years ago

      I live in Florida, so most of the time we can see the trails or when the sun reflected off of the spacecraft but that day it was clear and we could see better than ever before. We could see very well. I was at work and we were all outside watching it, then we saw the unusual and enormous smoke trail and instantly knew something was terribly wrong. We went back inside to the TV to see what happened and all I can remember is crying and being stunned and in a daze.

    • RuthMadison profile image

      RuthMadison 

      5 years ago

      I was four years old and hearing about the Challenger is one of my very earliest memories.

      I didn't know about radio because my parents only ever listened to records. So I thought what we were hearing was prerecorded on a record and I couldn't understand why anyone would make a record that was so sad, with people so upset.

    • profile image

      ChocolateLily 

      5 years ago

      I was not born just yet, but I've heard my mom talk about it. It was so sad, and more so, because it could have been prevented. I do remember everything about 9/11, which was a somewhat similar tragic event. Congrats on LotD! Very well done article.

    • ikdj lm profile image

      ikdj lm 

      5 years ago

      Nice lens, I remember watching it on TV as it happened. One of those shocking events that you remember for ever.

    • profile image

      JaspinderKaur 

      5 years ago

      Nice lens. Thanx for sharing.

    • Dressage Husband profile image

      Stephen J Parkin 

      5 years ago from Pine Grove, Nova Scotia, Canada

      I was actually watching the launch live on television and could not believe what happened at all. It was particularly hard to take because of Christa Mc Auliffe it would have been the same as losing Chris Hadfield on the ISS everyone including all of the school kids were watching them live as they were billed as special heroes to them. May God bless them all. I still can not imagine what makes them want to take the risk, but Chris Hadfield always seemed like he was addicted to the experience and would go again if he got the chance. It is explorers like this that keep pushing the boundaries and help us in so many fields. Well done a really great LOTD!

    • LeroySmith1 profile image

      LeroySmith1 

      5 years ago

      Wow, I don't think anyone can forget the first time they saw that footage. It's still heartbreaking today, especially when you think about that poor school teacher who had the "honor" of going into space.

    • AntonioM23 profile image

      AntonioM23 

      5 years ago

      Nice lens,thanks for sharing,I was really sad because these astronauts.

    • profile image

      OILDALE1 

      5 years ago

      I was an elementary student when this tragedy took place. This subject came to my mind and I was just telling my kids about the challenger two days ago.What a coincidence That I stumble across this lens today..great lense.

    • Raymond Eagar profile image

      Raymond Eagar 

      5 years ago

      I heard about it on the news .

    • LoriBeninger profile image

      LoriBeninger 

      5 years ago

      Like the Kennedy assassination and 9/11, until the day i die i will remember exactly where i was when news broke that the Challenger was lost. This was a beautiful lens about a horrible moment. You made me cry. Thank you.

    • SBPI Inc profile image

      SBPI Inc 

      5 years ago

      One of the saddest events of our time. All heroes in my book.

      Jonathan

      PS: may they rest in peace and with God

    • lollyj lm profile image

      Laurel Johnson 

      5 years ago from Washington KS

      I was at work at our local hospital and saw it on the news in a patient's room.

      Very well done. Congrats on LOTD.

    • profile image

      pawpaw911 

      5 years ago

      It is one of those events that you will always remember where you were when you heard the news. Congratulations on LOTD. Well done. Love your charity by the way.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      5 years ago

      I was in middle school at the time. There were kids in my English class talking about this incident and laughing about it. Made me mad that they laughed about it because I didn't think it was funny at all. In fact it made me feel sad. Even at that age, I still thought about those poor astronauts' families and friends and what they must have thought hearing that news. My English teacher, Mrs. Andrews, was asking those kids how they could hear news like that and laugh about it. At one point she started crying, She talked about it throughout my last 2 hours I had with her. Her perception of why kids would laugh about something like that is there's too much violence in TV programs. And those were the days when the violence wasn't nearly as bad as it is today.

    • SusanDeppner profile image

      Susan Deppner 

      5 years ago from Arkansas USA

      I was watching it with my two very young children. I remember just staring at the screen in disbelief, praying with the whole country that what it looked like happened didn't really happen. Sad day. Congratulations on your quest win and Lens of the Day!

    • Elaine Chen profile image

      Elaine Chen 

      5 years ago

      interesting topic wrote with rich content and neat layout

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      @writerkath: Bless your heart! I think everyone watching at the time seemed calm because nobody believed what they were seeing--except a handful of engineers who had warned about the O-rings and the low temperatures and immediately realized what must have happened.

    • profile image

      msseiboi 

      5 years ago

      In the news..

    • profile image

      ripburns 

      5 years ago

      I was to young to remember.

    • writerkath profile image

      writerkath 

      5 years ago

      First of all, my hands are shaking as I type this - and Congratulations on a well thought out and presented LOTD. Today - as I look at your page - and you may not believe this, but this is the FIRST TIME I have actually seen this coverage. On that dreadful day, I was at South Pole Station working on a sheet metal job - and back then, there was no TV in Antarctica. I had gone down for breakfast, and said good morning to Michael, the cook at Pole. He responded, "The space shuttle just exploded!" The news had evidently been either radioed or teletyped - not sure how Pole got its news. But, I never, ever watched footage until this very moment when I made the decision to go ahead and look at it. It astonishes me as to how calm the announcer and the person at NASA were as they reported the "major malfunction." And now please excuse me while I burst into tears...

    • Diana Wenzel profile image

      Renaissance Woman 

      5 years ago from Colorado

      I will never forget this day. I was at work in an exciting new job when I heard the news and headed immediately to a television monitor that had been set up. It was beyond shocking. I was totally stunned. I think it really hit me hard because I dreamed of being a teacher making a space mission (like Christa McAuliffe). Our school district built two schools named in honor of members of this tragic flight. Thank you for honoring the crew with this feature and congrats on LotD. It's important for us to remember.

    • SusanAston profile image

      SusanAston 

      5 years ago

      Very fitting tribute.

    • profile image

      LadyDuck 

      5 years ago

      I remember that day, we were watching TV with my mother in Italy, it was late afternoon, as soon as the disaster struck people were confused, they did not realized immediately what happened. It was a great shock.

    • Erin Mellor profile image

      Erin Mellor 

      5 years ago from Europe

      It was late afternoon in England, we watched on TV, as it was exciting, particularly as there was a teacher on board, it felt like it was opening up access and understanding to everyone. I remember feeling confused at first, it took a moment to register that something had gone horribly wrong. Then a feeling of complete shock, just staring at the TV. I think people all over the world were doing the same thing, stunned and confused for a long time, then I remember the horror I felt when I realised that the poor families of the astronauts who were watching the same pictures too.

    • PaigSr profile image

      PaigSr 

      5 years ago from State of Confusion

      As long as I had the time I would watch every shuttle launch including this one. I do remember seeing the whole thing on TV as it happened. What I did not remember is how long ago it was. Nicely done and a well earned LOTD.

    • maryseena profile image

      maryseena 

      5 years ago

      The mission was American, most of the crew were American, but that day, the world wept with America. Just like it did on September 11, 2001 ( world Trade Center) and again on 1st Feb 2003 (Columbia disaster). Love your lens for keeping the memory alive.

    • LeslieMirror profile image

      LeslieMirror 

      5 years ago

      I remember how terrible it was to hear about such news. I was almost crying! =(

    • Meganhere profile image

      Meganhere 

      5 years ago

      I was in Hong Kong, with no access to an English-speaking news program, when it happened, then on a flight back to Melbourne, Australia. When my father met me at the airport he said, 'What about the Challenger!' I said, 'Uh, what about the Challenger?' When he told me I was so shocked and upset I didn't know what to say. I cannot imagine what it was like for the families, watching that disaster unfold right before their eyes.

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      @Dusty2 LM: I don't think anybody got much work done that day.Thanks for sharing your memories.

    • Dusty2 LM profile image

      Dusty2 LM 

      5 years ago

      I was at work. Everyone had taken a break so we could watch the Challenger take off on TV. We were all really excited, clapping hands, cheering and patting each other on the back after takeoff and then.......; complete silence. We all looked at each other in disbelief at what we just saw. The Challenger erupting into pieces with the smoke trails following each piece back into the ocean. Was that real? Was that fiction? Everyone was in a state of shock and silence filled the room. For the rest of the day we would peek into the break room to try to get a handle on what happened to the Challenger and crew, especially, for Christa McAuliffe. I can still picture the look of shock on her parents and classroom kids faces in disbelief. This is another tragic day in history that I will long remember. Appreciate you sharing this historical event, kschimmel, and my vote is for you. Have a Great Day!

    • mamabrat lm profile image

      mamabrat lm 

      5 years ago

      In my third grade class.

    • SusanRDavis profile image

      Susan R. Davis 

      5 years ago from Vancouver

      It was my senior year in high school, and we were eagerly awaiting the launch. TVs were set up all over school, and everyone was watching. Not a single teacher would even hint that there was something better to be doing - like lessons. So nearly everyone was standing around the TVs watching the launch when we saw the explosion. I'll never forget the shock, the disbelief, and the horrible wrenching in my gut to realize that Challenger and her crew were just ... gone.

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      @PDX tours: My mom and Granny took us to visit the Space Center when I was young. I got to see Skylab being moved to the launch pad.

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      @lesliesinclair: My Granny also watched every possible liftoff/landing. She never lost her sense of wonder at it all.

    • PDX tours profile image

      PDX tours 

      5 years ago

      This tragedy happened one day before my 5th birthday. I grew up in Tampa, and the Kennedy Space Center never felt far-- I remember taking field trips or vacations there. I would've been in Kindergarten, but I don't have a vivid memory of hearing the news.

    • PDX tours profile image

      PDX tours 

      5 years ago

      This tragedy happened one day before my 5th birthday. I grew up in Tampa, and the Kennedy Space Center never felt far-- I remember taking field trips or vacations there. I would've been in Kindergarten, but I don't have a vivid memory of hearing the news.

    • lesliesinclair profile image

      lesliesinclair 

      5 years ago

      I was alone in my mountain top unfinished home. We had just begun using television and I had it on so I saw the explosion over and over that day - mesmerized in shock. All of these space adventures remind me of my grandfather, who would have been 120 now, used to get up during the night to watch as space flights take off or splash down. I suppose it was inevitable, but it was shockingly painful still.

    • profile image

      TanoCalvenoa 

      5 years ago

      I was in my first grade classroom, and I remember it quite well. Although this event was incredibly sad, it got me interested in space shuttles and space exploration for the first time.

    • kimberlyschimmel profile imageAUTHOR

      Kimberly Schimmel, MLS 

      5 years ago from Greensboro, NC

      I was in my office in downtown Chicago, working on a FORTRAN program.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)