- Education and Science
The Roma - The Gypsy
The Roma - a scattered people
The Romani (also Romany, Romanies, Romanis, Roma or Gypsies; Romani: Rromane) are an ethnic group with origins in South Asia. The Romani are widely dispersed with their largest concentrated populations in Europe, but also in the Americas and, to a lesser extent, in Northern Africa and Asia.
Millions of Romani spread over the world
They originate from India. But by mistake some thought they came from Egypt. So they were called Gypsies. That is a name the Roma people do not want to be called by. The emigration from India likely took place in the context of the raids by Mahmud of Ghazni and these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. The 11th century terminus post quem is due to the Romani language showing unambiguous features of the Modern Indo-Aryan languages, precluding an emigration during the Middle Indic period.
So here I will call them Roma. Rom (plural Roma) is a noun which means married man or husband. Romani (or Romany) can be an adjective or a noun. All Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective. For this reason, the term began to be used as a noun for the entire ethnic group.
There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide. Many Romanies refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination. There are an estimated 4 million Romani people in Europe and Asia Minor (as of 2002). Although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.
Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkan peninsula, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia, and Ukraine. Several more million Romanies may live out of Europe, in particular in the Middle East and in the Americas.
Here is how the Roma emigrated
Where are they? These figures are often estimated.
Remember that it is very hard to have official numbers
Albania Disputed: 1,300 (official) to 90,000-120,000
Algeria unknown number
Argentina 300,000 Kalderash, Boyash, Kale
Armenia unknown number Lom, Bosha
Australia 5,000+ Romnichal, Boyash
Azerbaijan ca. 2,000
Belarus 10,000 or 50,000-60,000
Bolivia unknown number
Bosnia and Herzegovina 60,000 or 80,000
Bulgaria Disputed: 370,908 (official census)
Chile 15,000 to 20,000
Croatia Disputed: 9,463
Czech Republic Disputed: 12,000
France 500,000 (official estimation)
1,200,000-1,300,000 (unofficial estimation)
Greece Disputed: 200,000
Iran 110,000 
Republic of Ireland 8,000
Republic of Macedonia Disputed: 53,879
Montenegro Disputed: 2,601
Morocco unknown number
New Zealand 1231
Norway 6,500 or more
Palestinian territories 7,200+
Paraguay unknown number
Poland 15,000 to 50,000
Russia Disputed: 182,766
Serbia Disputed: 108,193
Slovakia Disputed: 92,500 or 550.000
Slovenia 3,246 - 10,000
South Africa 7,900
Tajikistan unknown number
Tunisia unknown number
Turkey 700,000 to 5,000,000
United Kingdom 44,000-94,000+
United States of America 1 million
Uzbekistan unknown number
Venezuela unknown number
Literature about the Roma
- Lolo Diklo : Rromani Against Racism
A an organization dedicated to raising awareness about the history, culture and true lives of Romani people worldwide. We confront racism and oppression wherever we encounter it. We try to make connections with all the "isms" that make up western cul
The Roma people in the Holocaust
How many non-Jewish civilians were murdered during World War II?
Answer: While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number, the recognized figure is approximately 5,000,000. Among the groups which the Nazis and their collaborators murdered and persecuted were: Gypsies, Serbs, Polish intelligentsia, resistance fighters from all the nations, German opponents of Nazism, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, habitual criminals, and the "anti-social," e.g. beggars, vagrants, and hawkers.
It is known that perhaps 250,000 Gypsies were killed, and that proportionately they suffered losses greater than any other group of victims except Jews. The accounts here were collected, and made available on the net, from various sources.
This photo is from the death camp Belzen
The Simon Wiesenthal Center's
36 Questions About the Holocaust :
Photo Gallery by Lars Lindqvist - from Dagens Nyheter news paperClick thumbnail to view full-size
The Roma people have a flag and an anthem - here is the text and a translation to English
DJELEM DJELEM - THE ROMANI ANTHEM
Djelem, djelem, lungone dromensa
Maladilem baxtale Romensa
Djelem, djelem, lungone dromensa
Maladilem baxtale Romensa.
Ay, Romale, Ay, Chavale,
Ay, Romale, Ay, Chavale.
Ay Romale, katar tumen aven
Le tserensa baxtale dromensa
Vi-man sas u bari familiya
Tai mudardya la e kali legiya.
Aven mansa sa lumiake Roma
Kai putaile le Romane droma
Ake vryama - ushti Rom akana
Ame xutasa mishto kai kerasa.
Ay, Romale, Ay, Chavale,
Ay, Romale, Ay, Chavale.
I HAVE TRAVELED FAR
I have travelled over long roads
I have met fortunate Roma
I have travelled far and wide
I have met lucky Roma
Oh, Romani adults, Oh Romani youth
Oh, Romani adults, Oh Romani youth
Oh, Roma, from wherever you have come
With your tents along lucky roads
I too once had a large family
But the black legion murdered them
Come with me, Roma of the world
To where the Romani roads have been opened
Now is the time - stand up, Roma,
We shall succeed where we make the effort.
Oh, Roma adults, Oh, Roma youth
Oh, Roma adults, Oh, Roma youth.
Most anthems have a story behind them. This one has too. In 1969, Zarko Jovanovic was part of a group of British and European Roma activists who were travelling around England doing civil rights work. They had been to a campsite eviction in the North of England where Romani caravans were towed from a campsite by bulldozers. One turned over and caught fire. A small Romani child hiding inside was burned to death. Zarko composed this anthem on his way back to London, in a van full of Roma activists including Grattan Puxon, Thomas Acton, Vanko Rouda, Juan de Dios Heredia and others.
The melody is based on a Serbian- Romani love song which was popularized in the film by Alexandre Petrovic called Skupliace Perja.
The anthem is sung in march tempo and the guitar chords are A minor, D minor and E major. Alternatively, it can be played with E minor, A minor and B 7th. Zarko Jovanovic passed away in Paris in the mid-1990's.
Listen to the Roma anthem
Roma and the law
Quite often there is misunderstanding and irritation between the Roma and the other people of a country. The reason is often that: The Romani have their own court to judge in cases of crimes and dishonesty, marriage issues too.
The Romanies have their own wedding ceremonies too. Bread and salt is involved and it is just as legal for them as the ceremonies of the country law.
To read about the law of the Romas is really interesting. They have a very special law for example about laundry, sleeping position, use of the bathroom.
When you do the landry you have to wash the clothes of the upper part of the body separate from the lower. You mush wash table-cloths and napkins by hand. You cannot mix menÂ´s and womenÂ´s clothes.
You cannot use the bathroom an older person use. You have to go somewhere else.
These are only a few things you can read about in this book.
Read about the Roma people
The stories are many and come from many parts of the world.
Rosa Taikon - silversmith
She make Romani influenced jewelry
Have a look at her beautiful works. here is the phone and adress to her:
Rosa Taikon, Flor 1340, 840 90 Ytterhogdal
- Romani world
This alarming negative real growth is a failure in economic policy and will seriously affect the welfare of all Hungarians and consequently become a significant burden on the European Union.
- Links to facts about Romani
Gypsy, one scattered race, like stars in the sight of God
- Gypsies in Canada
Some Roma originated persons we know.
Charles Chaplin - actor
Yul Brynner - actor
Fairuza Balk - actress
Florijan Ajdini - actor
Dmitry Buzylyov - Russian actor
Bob Hoskins - actor
Marcia Nicole Lakatos - actress
Michael Caine - actor, father is a Romanichal from London
Soledad Miranda - Andalusian Flamenco Dancer and later Horror Film Actress from Seville, mother was Gitana.
Freddie Prinze - actor
Bajram Severdzan - Yugoslav actor
Nikolai Slichenko - Russian actor
Jill Hennessy - Canadian actress, mother gipsy
Tony Gatlif - French film maker
Jean Constantin Romanian actor
Moira Orfei actress italian
Burhan Rahim Macedonian teatre maker
Goran Navojec actor
Tracy Ullman British actress
Some about the Romani social lives
The traditional Roma place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Roma practice of child marriage. Roma law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule.
Once married, the woman joins the husband's family where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, and to take care of the in-laws as well. The power structure in the traditional Roma household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women. As women get older, however, they gain respect and authority in the eyes of the community. Young wives begin gaining authority once they mother children.
Roma social behaviour is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma and among Sinti groups by the older generations. This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions) as well as the rest of the lower body. Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board, as cutting them with a clipper is a taboo. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth. Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. However, in contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Roma dead must be buried. Cremation and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism today (although the tendency for higher caste groups is to burn, for lower caste groups in South India to bury their dead. Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick themselves and mix the impure outside with their pure inside.
Roma Music is alive and the muscicians are so skilled
Roma music for downloading now
Music played by Romanis
This is beautiful Roma music with a circus performance
The girl up in the air is waiting for her little fellow to climb up.
All the time the music is playing and singing.
Carmen - a famous Roma girl
in the Opera Carmen by Bizet
The opera premiered at the OpÃ©ra Comique of Paris on 3 March 1875, but its opening run was denounced by the majority of critics. It was almost withdrawn after its fourth or fifth performance, and although this was avoided, ultimately having 48 performances in the first year, it did little to bolster sagging receipts at the OpÃ©ra Comique. Near the end of this run, the theatre was giving tickets away in order to stimulate attendance. Bizet died on 3 June 1875, never knowing how popular Carmen would become. In October 1875 it was produced in Vienna, to critical and popular success, which began its path to worldwide popularity. It was not staged again at the OpÃ©ra Comique until 1883.
The story is set in Seville, Spain, circa 1830, and concerns the eponymous Carmen, a beautiful Gypsy with a fiery temper. Free with her love, she woos the corporal Don JosÃ©, an inexperienced soldier. Their relationship leads to his rejection of his former love, mutiny against his superior, and joining a gang of smugglers. His jealousy when she turns from him to the bullfighter Escamillo leads him to murder Carmen.
Galli-MariÃ© was the original Carmen - here on the photo
A Romani camp according to van Gogh
Caravans Encampment of Gypsies Art Print
van Gogh, Vincent
27.5 in. x 19.75 in.