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TYPES OF DEMAND
There are four types of demand namely Competitive Demand, Joint or Complementary Demand, Composite Demand and Derived Demand. Demand is the amount of a product buyers are willing and able to purchase at a given price over a particular period of time.
Commodities are substitutes if one can be used in place of the other. Substitute goods serve the same purpose and therefore compete for the consumers’ income. They are said to have competitive demand because of the fact that they compete for the consumers’ income. Examples of substitute goods are Milo and bournvita, butter and margarine and others. A change in the price of one affects the demand for the other. If for instance there is an increase in the price of butter, demand for margarine will increase which will ultimately increase the price of margarine, provided the supply of margarine does not change. On the other hand a decrease in the price of butter will lead to a decrease in the demand for margarine, and hence a fall in its price, given the supply.
b. Joint or Complementary Demand
Two or more goods are said to be jointly demanded when they must be consumed together to provided a given level of satisfaction. Some examples are cars and fuel, compact disc players and CD. There are perfect complementary goods and imperfect or poor complementary goods. For perfect complementary goods, the consumer practically cannot do without the other. An example is cars and fuel. On the other hand, for imperfect complementary goods, a consumer can do without the other, so long as a substitute is obtained. For complementary demand, a change in the price of one good affects the demand for the other. If there should be an increase in the price of compact disc players, there will be a decrease in the demand for discs, other things being equal.
c. Derived Demand
When the demand for a commodity is derived from the demand for the final commodity, that commodity is said to have derived demand. Wood may be demanded for the purpose of manufacturing furniture and not for its own sake. Here, the demand for wood is derived from the demand for furniture. Demand for wood is therefore a derived demand.
Factors of production such as land, labor, and capital have derived demand. This is because an increase in the demand for a commodity will result in an increase in the factors of production used in producing the goods. The price of the factors of production will increase, other things being equal.
d. Composite Demand
Composite demand applies to commodities which have several uses or are demanded for several and different purposes. Wood as mentioned in the example above is used for furniture – tables, chairs, beds, windows, doors and others. A change in demand for one of them will affect all others. If there is an increase in demand for table this will result in higher prices being paid for wood. The high price for wood will increase the cost of production of chairs, bed, windows and doors and any other thing for which wood is used in manufacturing