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Greek Philosopher: Xenocrates
Xenocrates was Greek philosopher born around 396 BC in Chalcedon, Bithynia, Asia Minor. In 380 BC he migrated to Athens, where he studied philosophy under Plato and eventually presided over Plato's Academy from 339 until his death. As a member of the Academy he accompanied Plato on one of his Sicilian visits.
In logic he tried to exhibit mathematics as mediating between knowledge and perception. He failed to grasp the idealism underlying Plato's ontology and, infected with Pythagoreanism, took arithmetical unity and plurality for his principles in physics and then identified ideal numbers with arithmetical numbers. The titles of over 75 treatises written by him show that he accorded especial attention to ethics. In this philosophical area he was most concerned to give Plato's teaching a more direct applicability to life.
His contemporaries respected Xenocrates for his integrity, dignity, and courtesy. Modern scholars regard him as the most faithful of Plato's followers, as the typical representative of the Old Academy, and as a brilliant teacher rather than an original thinker.
After Plato's death Xenocrates spent some time with Aristotle at Assos, and in 339 succeeded Speusippus as head of the Academy. None of his writings survive, but his teaching is discussed in the Metaphysics of Aristotle and of Theophrastus.
Xenocrates died in Athens, Greece in 314 BC.