Every crowd has a silver lining~PT Barnum
The man whose life was an exclamation mark, the genius behind Ringling Bros. and Barnum and Bailey Circus, Phineas Taylor Barnum was one of the most influential showman of all time. Whether or not Barnum actually did coin the phrase "never give a sucker an even break", he certainly lived by that philosophy....he was a shameless sham artist, energetic entrepenuer, master showman and indefatiguable promoter. Doubtless he wasn't called the 'Prince of Humbug' for nothing.
Born in 1810 in Bethel, Connecticut, he demonstrated some early entrepeneurship at age 12 by selling lottery tickets and in his early twenties had founded a weekly newspaper and was already a busness owner. A move to New York City in 1934 saw him launch into show business and he formed a variety troupe called Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater.
An Eye for the Fascinating
At 25 he paid $1000 for the services of Joyce Heath, a woman who had ludicrously claimed to be 161 years old. However, Barnum exhibited her in New York and New England, managing to accrue $1,500 per week in the process...not a bad return on his investment.
At 31 he formed a partnership with the owner of Scudders American Museum on Broadway, New York and with much fanfare, exhibited 500,000 natural and artificial curiosities from every corner of the globe! It was a combination freak show, zoo, theatre, wax museum and lecture hall and included dioramas, panoramas and cosmoramas.
In 1870, when Barnum was 60 years old , he lent his name and financial backing to an already established Wisconsin circus, owned by Dan Costello and William Cameron Coup and it thus became P.T. Barnum's Great Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan, and Hippodrome...later to be grandly promoted as The Greatest Show on Earth. And big it was...in fact it covered five acres and accommodated 10,000 seated patrons at a time. Barnum grossed $400,000 in it's first year -a huge sum for the day.
A rival circus, and chief competitor, had been the Cooper and Bailey Circus, owned by James Bailey and James E Cooper. In 1881 the shows were combined to become the famous Barnum and Bailey Circus.
When Barnum died in 1891 Bailey bought the circus from his widow, kept it going for over 20 years and when he died in 1906 it was bought out by Ringling Brothers and eventually became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus and still The Greatest Show on Earth.
The late 1800's to the turn of the century was the heyday for the American circus as there was little competition for large-scale entertainment. The arrival of the shows in various towns around the country were anticipated for weeks in advance and there was much fanfare when the circus finally arrived...with its large caravans, strange animals, music, fascinating individuals and an aura of exotic glamour.
In her article The Circus Age: Culture and Society Under the American Bigtop, Janet M Davis notes there were around 100 circuses touring the US in 1900 and they were at that time, a "cherished American institution". Big circuses llike Barnum and Bailey travelled by rail and drew large crowds wherever they went.
There's no Business Like Show Business
Without promotion, something terrible happens...nothing!~ PT Barnum
This is from the man whom Life magazine once dubbed 'the patron saint of promoters'. Promotion was as basic as breathing air to Barnum...he instinctively knew that if you 'build it they will come'....but only if you tell people it's there in the loudest voice possible.
For the American Museum for example, Barnum turned the five-story exterior into one big, garish advertisement; he painted exotic animals, illuminated panels, banners and flags on the outside of the bulding and lit it all up with limelight, which had only just been invented. It must have looked fantastic. He was also daring enough to employ the worst musicians he could find to play on a balcony above the entrance, assuming that their horrible cacophany would drive the customers inside.
Famous Barnum Acts
Alongside his promotional genius, Barnum had an astute eye for what would capture public imagination and utilising these two skills, he became one of the richest men in America.
Some of the more notable acts in his stable of stars were Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind (probably his most successful financial venture), General Tom Thumb (Charles S. Stratton), the 'smallest man in the world', conjoined twins Chang and Eng Bunker and Jumbo the elephant, which he bought from a London zoo for $10,000.
The Feejee Mermaid Hoax
In July,1842 a strange creature was brought to New York by one Dr. J. Griffin, a member of the British Lyceum of Natural History. The creature was apparently, a 'real' mermaid captured somewhere off the Islands of 'Feejee'.
The press were abuzz, having been informed some time earlier of the mermaid's imminent arrival and when Griffin arrived at this hotel they were already waiting for him. When Griffith presented the creature, the press were, amazingly, convinced she was the genuine article.. perhaps because of the scientific aura surrounding Dr. Griffin.
Enter PT Barnum...who went to the papers lamenting that he had begged Griffin to let him display the mermaid at his museum but had been refused. Apparently downhearted, he offered each newspaper an 'exclusive' woodcut of the mermaid he had prepared and now would not be using. Lo and behold, every paper in town printed the woodcut picture of the Feejeean creature. The result...? The populous now felt compelled to see the mermaid, in order to judge whether or not she was real with their own eyes.
Obligingly, because of the fuss, Dr. Griffin agreed to display the mermaid for one week at Concert Hall on Broadway. The crowds were huge...people tripped over themselves to get a view of the mermaid and when the week was up Griffin suddenly agreed to move the exhibition to Barnum's museum for another month where ticket receipts tripled as a consequence.
Such deceitful shenanigans were typical of PT Barnum, who of course was the mastermind behind the hoax. It was Barnum who had sent letters to the papers informing them of the mermaids impending arrival. There was no such place as the the British Lyceum of Natural History -Dr Griffin was a fiction, a Barnum accomplice...the mermaid was...duh..a fake bought off a merchant seaman..and not only a fake but a great deal less attractive than the Barnum pamphlets had suggested.
Small wonder Barnum became associated with the 'never give a sucker an even break' quotation. Barnum firmly believed there could be no such thing as bad publicity.
Politics, Universalism and Philanthropy
Barnum had originally been a Democrat , but when the war broke out was "one of the most
outspoken defenders of the Union" and switched sides to become an enthusiastic Republican.
According to his obituary in the New York Times: He was four times elected to the General Assembly of Connecticut, and made his mark by
advocating the rights of individuals as against railway monopolies. He also served with credit as
Mayor of Bridgeport, a city in the improvement and beautifying of which he spent much time and
money. Such improvements included the Bridgeport Hospital, which Barnum played a signifant role in establishing.
He spoke before the legislature against slavery: A human soul is not to be trifled with. It may inhabit the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab or a Hotentot - it is still an immortal spirit!
The philanthropic capitalist also built houses and sold them to working people on long payments
at low rates of interest, enabling working class people to own houses hitherto denied them. Barnum was a supporter of what he termed 'profitable philanthropy' and no doubt he made a profit from the houses but he believed if there is an adequate incentive, the motivation to do good will be twofold.
In his will he left a codicil stipulating that every year a percentage of the profits from the show go to The Children's Aid society. At the time of his death his share in the circus was estimated at $3,500,000. Among other sidelines, he was a member of the stock exchange, owned extensive real estate and had livestock holdings with the Vanderbilts and Eastmans.
A high-profile Universalist, Barnum financially supported the Universalist Society -he counted many Unitarian ministers and laypersons among his friends and once joked that his only rival as a showman was well-known itinerant missionary, Quillen Hamilton Shinn. He was married twice...the second time to an Englishwoman.
Reputedly, Barnum's last words before dying were about the show, which was appearing in New York's Madison Square Garden..."Ask Bailey what the box office was at the Garden last night..."
From the Ringling Bros. Website
What could be more fitting for a man who had lived for showbusiness profits...? In his obituary in the New York Times on April 8, 1891, which he requested to see before his death, the following was noted:
His (PT Barnum's) father, Philo Barnum, the son of Ephraim Barnum, who served as a Captain in the Revolutionary war, was a tailor, a farmer, at times a tavern keeper, and ever on the lookout to turn a quick penny by any honorable means. Born of such ancestors and with such surroundings, it is hardly necessary to say that the boy was early taught that if he would succeed in the world he must work hard.
'Ever on the lookout to turn a
quick penny'...It was in the blood it seems.
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