ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Who was Elizabeth I?

Updated on December 18, 2016

Elizabeth I (1533-1603), Queen of England (1558-1603), was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. During her childhood she received a good education and learned to speak several languages, but in the reigns of her brother Edward VI and her sister Mary I, she came under suspicion of being involved in treasonable plots and was closely watched and kept in semi-captivity.

In 1558 she succeeded to the throne of an impoverished divided country, menaced by France and Spain. With the able assistance of her chief minister, William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), she overcame all her difficulties, making a religious settlement that went some way towards satisfying both Protestants and Catholics, and fending off England's enemies, while building up the country's strength and restoring its navy. As regards France, she was lucky, for the ambitious Henry II died and the country became involved in a religious war, so she was able to conclude a peace treaty and to help destroy French influence in Scotland. Later, she kept Mary Queen of Scots, the Catholic claimant to her throne, prisoner for many years, only agreeing to her execution (1587) when war with Spain had become inevitable.

Towards Spain her policy was to keep up the pretense of friendship and to appear to consider marriage to Philip II, while giving 'undercover' help to his Protestant subjects in the Netherlands during the Dutch Revolt and encouraging her 'sea-dogs' to pursue their piratical expeditions.

When war finally came and the Armada sailed, Elizabeth's display of defiant courage inspired and united her people.

At home her reign was notable for an increase in prosperity and the formation of trading companies, for attempts to solve the problems of vagrancy and unemployment, for the Queen's crafty management of her parliaments and for a flowering of the arts of music, poetry and drama. The achievements of Shakespeare, Marlowe, Jonson, Spenser and the composers Dowland and Byrd are the glories of the Elizabethan period. Drake, Hawkins, Frobisher and Raleigh founded a seafaring tradition that led to England's subsequent naval superiority. Towards Ireland Elizabeth's policy was one of cruel suppression, which aroused bitter hatred of English rule.

Elizabeth was possibly the greatest and best loved of all the English monarchs. She was intelligent, self-willed, brave and astute, besides being vain and maddeningly capricious; much of her success as a ruler arose from her cleverness in adopting delaying tactics; towards the question of her marriage and in her foreign and religious policies she avoided decisions for as long as possible.

Though she had a weakness for favorite like Leicester and Essex, she never allowed them to influence the nation's affairs, for she kept her own counsel, trusting no one entirely, except perhaps Cecil. Above all she possessed a dazzling personality that women's devotion; she expressed this herself when she said to her last Parliament, 'This I count the chief glory of my crown, that I have reigned with your loves'.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)