Child development by months to a year
Each child is marvelous and grows in his way. Let's find out more about what stages of development children undergo up to a year, and how parents can support this development children process.
What does the baby learn from 0 to 1 month
The first month of a newborn's life is considered a period of adaptation. During these 30 days, a new member of your family has to do a great job of rebuilding his body. Most of his life, he lived in the aquatic environment, where he was provided with heat, nutrients, and oxygen. Now he needs to breathe himself, regulate the heat exchange system himself, and get milk from my mother's breast.
This term requires enormous energy costs, so in the first month, the baby sleeps and eats most of the time. In the first weeks of life, sleep is essential for the baby: in a dream, it grows, and the body gets used to the new environment. The duration of wakefulness during the day in the first month usually does not exceed 2 to 4 hours. Breastfeeding is quickly getting better: a newborn eats on average every 2 hours, at night 3–5 times (do not forget - everything is very individual). Your baby will set the regime of sleep, feeding, and wakefulness on his own, depending on his physiological characteristics and temperament. Your task as parents is only to notice and maintain these rhythms, learning to recognize and satisfy the needs of the child.
Physical and psycho-emotional development in this period occurs by itself, almost imperceptibly, but continuously. Even though the baby does not yet demonstrate extraordinary achievements, he absorbs a lot.
You can create a diary for yourself where you will record all the achievements of your baby: for the first time, he smiles, begins to crawl, and takes the first steps. This step will help to trace the dynamics of development and preserve pleasant memories for life.
- The movements of the arms and legs are chaotic;
- The hypertonicity of the arms and legs is preserved, the cams are tightly compressed;
- Raises the head, lying on his stomach;
- Learns to fix a look on a motionless subject;
- Congenital reflexes are still very developed, thanks to which the baby adapts to the environment - sucking, searching (searching for the mother's breast), grasping (compresses everything that falls into his fist), walking reflex (moves legs, as if walking, if you hold him in an upright position on a hard surface), swimming, Mora's reflex (brings the arms and legs apart and responds to a loud and sudden sound), etc. As the child develops, they will gradually fade, leaving room for the adult's necessary reflexes (blinking, sneezing e, yawning, shuddering, etc.).
- May please with the first smile (the so-called physiological smile);
- It makes the beginning sounds (sniffles, grunts), and if they talk a lot with the child, they please their parents with a walk (agukany);
- Reacts with a jerking, fading or crying to sharp and loud sounds;
- Actively helps during feeding (settles down comfortably, searches, and catches a nipple of a mother's breast with his mouth).
Now your baby needs particularly close physical and visual contact with his mother and her response to his needs. It lays a solid foundation for the psychological well-being of the child. In this challenging time, the family is tested for strength and cohesion. So that let the other family members take upon themselves all the other cares about the house.
How the baby develops by two months
At this age, the baby sleeps already noticeably less: periods of extended daytime wakefulness appear. Daytime sleep is short. A quiet mode is being developed: now its duration is 10 - 12 hours with breaks for feeding, during which the baby may not completely wake up.
- Lying on his stomach, for some time holds the head at an angle of 45 degrees;
- Flips from side to back;
- In an upright position, keeps the head 1 - 2 minutes;
- Keeps an eye on moving objects;
- Turns his head toward the sound;
- Hypertonicity of the hands disappears;
- Some reflexes of the new fade away (grasping, walking reflex).
- Demonstrates the "revitalization complex" - the active movements of the arms and legs in response to the appearance of the mother, a walk, a broad smile;
- Freezes, listening to the sounds;
- Smiles in response to gentle treatment, conversation, smile;
- Reacts to familiar voices;
- Walks sing some sounds.
The development of the perception of shape and color can be stimulated by hanging pictures with bright precise shapes and patterns: black and white, red, yellow, blue, green, orange on the sides of the crib.
What a child can do by three months
Perhaps the main achievement of this month and the joy for parents is the emergence of a regime that the baby builds with his mother. There is already a distinct time of awakening, feeding, and falling asleep with two to three times (sometimes four times) daytime sleep.
At this period, the baby already knows how to cry and cry to express his dissatisfaction, requires attention. Observational parents may notice the first manifestations of the character of the child.
- Confidently holds his head, lying on his stomach and in an upright position;
- In the supine position, it rests on the forearm;
- Examines and sucks pens;
- Rolls from back to side;
- He tries to grab and hold a toy in his hand and then pulls it into his mouth.
- Keeps eye contact;
- Smiles and laughs;
- For a long time it can walk, walks become diverse;
- Recognizes the faces of loved ones;
- For a long time, fixes the gaze on stationary objects (up to 5 minutes).
Arrange a family council and make a list of character traits of close relatives of the baby. Pay particular attention to undesirable qualities. This point is an excellent reason to start thinking about which methods of education could help to correct them, and which will help to develop those properties that you dream of seeing in your heir.
Baby development by four months
At four months, the main thing for the child is the coordination of the movements of the eyes and hands. The grasping reflex is gradually weakening. The actions of the hands become conscious, take on meaning, especially when you need to reach for something, the grasping reflex is slowly dying away. Own pens (and sometimes even legs) become the most favorite toys for the baby.
Active salivation may appear - so the teeth begin to erupt. Do not be surprised if this happens only after a couple of months or more.
- Alone or with the help holding him by one arm, turns from back to stomach (and sometimes from the abdomen to the end);
- Reaches for objects, feel them;
- Licks fingers, sucks fist, with the same purpose trying to reach the mouth of the legs;
- Rhythmically jumps legs and transfers weight to them;
- Hypertonicity of the legs disappears.
- In communication, he prefers mother, recognizes her, rejoices at her appearance, maybe capricious when she briefly leaves;
- "Cooing" with his parents when he is in a good mood;
- He actively smiles, laughs, squeals with delight;
- Reacts to the sound of your name;
- For a long time can deal with toys hanging over the crib;
- Babble and the first syllables appear - "ma", "ba", "pa".
Stages of development in 5 months
The fifth month passes under the motto, "I want to move!". Let the baby continue trying to roll over, swing, sit down, the main thing is to ensure him safety at these moments. If you notice that the child needs more freedom of space than he has in the crib or playpen, you can lay him on the floor. Prepare the surface for this in advance: it should be clean and pleasant for contact with the baby's delicate skin, a soft mat is perfect for these purposes.
The regime of sleep, wakefulness, and feeding during this period can again begin to be rebuilt. Sometimes the baby may not wake up all night, even to feed, or get up very early and no longer sleep in the morning.
- Lies on the stomach for a long time, leaning on outstretched arms, it can begin to crawl in a plasticky way;
- Confidently flips from the back to the abdomen;
- It sits with support, while the end is bent sharply;
- Entertains himself by playing with his arms and legs;
- Confidently grabs items and holds them in his hands for a long time.
- Recognizes the mother's voice;
- Distinguishes the faces of loved ones from strangers;
- It reacts differently to the unequal tone of appeal to him - smiles in response to the gentle sound of the voice and frowns with strict intonation;
- Long and harmonious walks;
- Itself encourages parents to communicate - smiles, babbles, pulls hands, naughty if communication is not enough.
At this age, children are often confused day by night (this feature may occur earlier, but is more familiar from 4 to 6 months). Think about why: maybe the baby has too long periods of daytime sleep, or he does not have enough movement during the day, or the air in the room is too dry and warm.
How a baby develops at six months
What would you like to eat? Yes, precisely, in half a year, the baby begins to show food interest. This step is a new stage in its development, and not at all evidence of a shortage of milk in the mother or malnutrition of the child. From 6 months, you can enter the first lure.
- Sits down from a position on all fours;
- Turns over from abdomen to back and from back to stomach;
- He gets up on all fours and sways back and forth, getting ready for a full crawl (some children already crawl pretty well);
- Long watches the movement of the toy;
- The first tooth may erupt.
- Deals with one subject - shifts from hand to hand, pulls into his mouth, pushes, examines;
- Repeats for adults syllables and sounds, imitating his voice intonations;
- Tries to imitate the movements of an adult - pats, knocks, squeezes, shakes a toy;
- The consonants "s", "s", "c", "f" appear.
The kid still pulls into his mouth, everything that comes to hand, and if your child has already crawled, be on the alert. Carefully check the apartment for the safety of the child's movement on it. To do this, enter the position of the baby in the literal sense. Then kneel and crawl onto them the whole apartment (or that part of it in which you will lay the child on the floor), removing any objects (possibly even changing the arrangement of furniture) that are the dangerous baby. Pay special attention to wires, outlets, and heavy objects that your baby may knock over.
What a baby can do in 7 months
Have you noticed how your child has changed, how much easier it is to communicate with him? Yes, the baby's sensory development is gaining momentum: by the age of 7 months, his hearing and eyesight are developed almost like in an adult. The nervous structures and connections that are responsible for the quality of sensations are already fully formed. The kid learned to connect sound and visuals and understand that they can have the same source. Physical development
- Crawls well;
- Confidently sits with a straight back;
- He pulls himself up and tries to get up in the crib;
- With support for both hands it stands evenly and can cross legs;
- Eats well from a spoon, drinks from a cup that an adult holds;
- Improves excellent motor skills, loves finger games, "Magpie-crow," "Ladushki."
- To the question "Where?" He finds the object in its usual place;
- He babbles for a long time, repeating the same syllables - "ba-ba-ba", "ma-ma-ma", "pa-pa-pa";
- He enjoys looking at pictures in books;
- He has been dealing with toys for a long time;
- Reaches for his reflection in the mirror.
At this age, the baby may need constant chewing, since his teeth and jaws are actively developing, and they need an increased chewing load. The baby can be given chewing pieces of a solid apple, carrots, drying, cookies.
Baby development in 8 months
Where is mom If at seven months the babies are worried when their mother is not around, then at eight months the children have a fear of strangers? One follows from the other, and both phenomena are typical for each of these stages of growing up. You will do it right if you try to surround the baby with special care, affection, and emotional warmth. You will be sensitive to his needs. Scientific studies have shown that children who receive a lot of heat and tenderness in infancy are much more resistant to stress in adulthood.
- Crawls at high speed and any distance;
- With support rises from a sitting position and lowers;
- A "tweezers grip" appears - it can take small objects with the thumb and forefinger;
- He holds in his hand and eats slices of food;
- He makes his first attempts to move with an added step, holding on to a support.
- Feels confident in a familiar space;
- The range of emotions is expanding - you can notice discontent, surprise, joy, delight, perseverance;
- Loudly and repeats syllables;
- The vocabulary is increasing, the first conscious words appear - "mom", "dad", "woman", "give";
- He begins to show increased interest in new objects, expressing facial expressions of surprise and wariness.
When the child is eight months old, he is already able to control the volume of his voice, and from now on, you can sometimes whisper to each other. If you have not read your baby before bedtime, then this is a great time to start: and the night reading ritual will be practiced. Once again, you will practice adjusting the volume of your voice.
How a baby grows at nine months
Time to talk! Some children prefer to postpone this moment a little. But for many, this is a period of active development of speech. The kid knows his name, the names of all loved ones, the names of the most familiar objects and concepts. Talk with him as much as possible, try to enrich the sound series with meaningful statements in the form of requests, wishes, coherent stories.
During this period, it is essential to continue to learn to say no to the child. Pay attention to how you pronounce the prohibitive word. It's best to calmly and firmly say: "Do not touch the socket, it's dangerous," and without jokingly shaking a finger, coo: "My sweet one, please leave the socket alone." Otherwise, the baby will not take your words seriously and, on the contrary, will try to repeat the forbidden action.
- It quickly creeps in different directions, climbs on all fours on a pillow, elevations, ladder of a children's slide, tries to open drawers;
- Walks holding on to support;
- Sits from a prone position and lies down from a sitting position;
- Repeats movements for an adult - raises and lowers his hands, claps his hands;
- Improves actions with small objects - takes them out and puts them back into the container, opens (removes) the lids.
- Rejoices in response to the result of a successful action (opened the box);
- Understands the meaning of the word "no";
- Finds an item regardless of its location;
- Understands and follows simple instructions - "lie down", "get up", "drop", "on", "give";
- Knows the name and purpose of individual items - cups, spoons, bottles, combs.
Remember: if "no" is pronounced for any reason, the baby will soon get used to the word and stop paying attention to it. In the future, this may lead the child not to be able to respect you and your desires. Therefore, it is best to use prohibitions only in cases where it is necessary to protect the baby from danger.
How a baby develops in 10 months
Your baby, as a rule, knows how to walk by this age - to date, the child's motor skills are already fully developed. The emphasis from motor development to neuropsychic began to shift as early as 8 - 9 months of age, so continue to help the baby grow. Reading, listening to music, audio fairy tales, developmental games suitable for this age, cubes, pyramids, balls - any enrichment of sensory perception is now priceless. Physical development
- Walks well along with the support;
- Goes forward with support for both hands;
- Improves the movements and actions already familiar to him, develops coordination and dexterity;
- It uses tweezers and mainly with one hand.
- He actively develops speech, forming his language, understandable only to close adults;
- He calls various objects in separate syllables (dog - "av", cow - "mu");
- Waving his hand "bye-bye";
- Knows where to put some items, toys;
- He understands when he is praised, and when scolded;
- He remembers his favorite toy.
The kid can already occupy himself for some time, and you have a moment for yourself. Use it one hundred percent! Have a cup of coffee, call your friend, work out with fitness or yoga. In the case of exercise, you will not lose anything if the baby decides to join you: go in for sports with him!
The baby is 11 months old: what can he do
Your baby becomes much more independent, and only a month remains before the first birthday. Soon you will be summing up the first results. Have you already figured out how the first celebration in the life of your child will take place? Start compiling a guest list and planning a holiday menu!
- It stands alone;
- Walks well for one hand;
- Takes the first steps;
- Bends when lifting an object without squatting;
- Squats without support.
- Gradually masters the actions with objects that correspond to their purpose - puts the doll to sleep, carries goods by car, collects a pyramid, builds turrets from cubes;
- Can name most items in the house (in his way);
- He uses various means to indicate his desires, in addition to crying, - he looks, shows a finger, nods affirmatively or shakes his head;
- Actively reacts to unfamiliar surroundings, people, a new toy;
- He is trying to feed himself from a spoon.
Did right hand or left-handed? If a child knows how to use a spoon, likes to draw, collects pyramids, you probably already noticed which side dominates the baby. You can do a test: put the toy in front of the child and see which handle first reaches for it. Repeat the test regularly to see if your left-hander is your baby or right-hander.
Summing up the first year
So, the baby is one year old. Passed the most critical stage in life! These 12 months in the physical and psycho-emotional development that the child went through cannot be compared with any other year of life. From a helpless creature, he turned into a man who copes with a whole set of operations, with his character, addictions, and inclinations.
- Rises independently sits down;
- Goes alone or with support on the one hand;
- Chews solid food;
- Performs actions learned earlier by playing with toys.
- Pronounces a few words (sometimes in a lightened version), in addition to "mom" and "dad";
- Expresses dissatisfaction with the word "can not," the sharp tone of the voice of an adult, the inability to perform the desired action;
- He knows the names of several adults and children, shows parts of the body;
- Looks inquiringly at the adult at difficulties in unfamiliar situations;
- It behaves differently with different people (mom, dad, grandmother, strangers);
- Excited at a meeting and parting;
- He has clearly expressed interests, favorite and unloved activities, food addictions;
- Tries to participate in dressing (raises his hands, lifts his leg), washing.
At the age of one year, the child likes to be independent. It is worth supporting and developing further, for example, offering him to choose clothes for a walk, a mid-morning meal, a joint game, or an independent lesson. Independence begins to manifest itself in the form of emotional outbursts. Then it is better to let the baby calm down (sometimes he will need your help in this too), and later explain what you wanted from him.
Age norms and standards are only a guideline
Remember that so many factors play a role in the development of the child that the pickiest specialist will not take a strict assessment of his maturation in the first year of life.
The term for the appearance of individual skills can be extended in time from 2 to 6 - 7 months. For example, especially active children may try to get to their feet as early as five months, while those who, due to their temperament, are in no hurry, can begin to show interest in such activity only at the age of one year. If it seems to you that some of the skills appear in your baby with a delay, do not be afraid to talk to your pediatrician. General practitioners have extensive experience and knowledge about all the regular options.
You can be sure that if from the first days of his life a child entirely ate and slept, was in the fresh air, received a sufficient amount of physical and emotional stimuli, was surrounded by the love and care of adults. He was examined by a pediatrician and relevant specialists on time - to his On his first birthday. He grew up in a beautiful, healthy, and happy baby!