ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Family and Parenting»
  • Genealogy, Family History & Family Trees

What Does a Cousin, Once Removed Mean?

Updated on December 14, 2008

Everyone is familiar with typical terms to describe family relations, like grandmother, aunt and nephew. It's easy to visualize these relations when compared to yourself. But when it comes to cousins, things can get complicated. What the heck is a fourth cousin, once removed? Or a second cousin, twice removed?

I'll use "third cousin, once removed" to explain. There are really 2 parts to these designations: "third" and "once removed". Each part tells you something different about your relative.

First, the "third". This refers to how many generations between you and the common ancestor that you share with this cousin (minus 1, because people with the same parents are not considered cousins at all). So for my example here, a third cousin has the same great-great grandparents as you do. First cousins have the same grandparents as you do.

Second, the "once removed". The previous bit talked about how far back the relationship connection is, whereas the "removed" tells you the generational difference between you and your cousin. In other words, "once removed" means that your cousin is one generation away from you. Cousins of the same generation as yourself are not described with a "removed" note.

So for our example, a third cousin, once removed, would be someone who shares your great-great grandparents and is one generation away from you (in other words, from your parent's generation).

As your family tree grows, you will find you have cousins on quite a grand scale, like 15th cousins, 4 times removed and so one. Most family tree software programs will assign these designations to relatives automatically, so don't worry if you can't get it straight right away.

I have more articles about genealogy on my personal website, Learn Genealogy.


This article was first published at and was written originally by Darlene Vaillancourt who has given permission for reposting. She's my mom.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      pamela greenwood 3 years ago from inglewood, california

      i'm left wondering why I need the degree-of-removal if i'm using 2nd cousin, 3rd cousin, etc. but I think the discussion might've answered my question: my friend and I share cousins. I am a second cousin on their mother's side. he's a third cousin on their father's side. are he and I cousins of ANY type or degree?

    • profile image

      jeremy parker 5 years ago this is a dictionary use it sine you are that dumbed

    • profile image

      Natsuki 5 years ago

      Ur a bunch of crazies

      Good luck

    • profile image

      James 5 years ago

      Have I got it right. This is what I think it is.

      My fourth cousin three times removed is my great-great-great-great grandparent's great-great-great grandchild. Am I right?

    • profile image

      James 5 years ago

      Ok, I feel REALLLLLLY dumb, because that article confused me.

      In terms that somebody INCREDIBLY stupid can understand, can you explain HOW my fourth cousin three times removed is related to me?

    • profile image

      Jess 5 years ago

      Jereny: have you heard of punctuation?

    • profile image

      Me phi 5 years ago

      Lol, whoa ... Now that's intense !

    • profile image

      jereny parker 6 years ago

      i aint got nothing wrong and you need to keep your mouth shut unless you are a perfessional geneologist and know what you're talking about i got the information i have today from my uncle who happens to be a very smart indivual who made all a's in school and never brought a book home so if you are wantting me to call my uncle a liar and insult his intelligrnce i aint gonna do it but i'll tell you what we're gonna do i am gonna put a diagram and show you what i am talking about since you are dumbed and can't count

      roy and bessie rutland parents

      jim siblings reba

      ramona 1st cousins david

      ashley 2nd cousin jeremy

      ok david a and ramona are first cousins they are in the same generation they have one generation in between them and their grandparents rramona's daddy jim and david's mother reba are brother and sister ok now ashley and i are 2nd cousins we have 2 generations in netween us and great grand parents our parents who are first cousins and our grandparents reba and jim who are brother and sisters ashley's grandmother reba and my grandfather jim are brother and sister so me and ashley are 2nd cousins with each other ok now look at me and david we are one generation appart one generation removed from each other on the family tree david shares grandparents with my mother but their grandparents are my great grandparents the difference between grandparents and great grandparents is one generation or once removed so david and i are first cousins the relationship mother has with david once removed ashley and mother are also first cousins once removed ashley and i are 2nd cousins with each other

    • profile image

      str8edgeFratguy 6 years ago

      Yall have it wrong, the 'removed' means nothing, your 1st cousin is the child of your mom or dad's brother or sister, your second cousin is your mom or dad's 1st cousin, so basically, you and your 1st cousin have the same grandparents, your 3rd cousin has the same great gparents as you, and your 5th cousin has the sam great great gparents as you, so if its an even number, subtract 1 and that's what cousin he or she is to your mom or dad.

    • profile image

      jeremy parker 6 years ago

      my mother has a cousin namend david first cousin that is his mother and my mothers daddy are brother sister so they share the same gandparents ok now since i am one generation away from mother and david then the relationship changes by one generation in other words i can't share davids grandparents with him and he can't share my great grandparents me because his grandparents and my great grand parents are the same people so as you can see there a generation gap so david is my first cousin once removed ok now with his daughter ashley she is my second cousin her grand mother reba is my grandfathers sister my grandfather mother and fater and her grandmothers mother and father are the great grandparents

    • gmwilliams profile image

      Grace Marguerite Williams 6 years ago from the Greatest City In The World-New York City, New York

      Excellent hub.

    • profile image

      june 6 years ago

      Thanks very very helpful...just saw this on my sons fav.

    • profile image

      Jeff 6 years ago

      dafla, Your parents first cousins would be your first cousins once removed. The reason being that they are one generation from you and their grandparents are your great grandparents. It's the same reason that makes your first cousins children your first cousin once removed. Your grandparents are their great grandparents.

      houston, your first cousin's children are your first cousins once removed. Nephews and nieces are children of your siblings.

      tarvan, your mother's second cousin's son would be your third cousin because you both share the same great great grandparents. Your mother's second cousin would be your second cousin once removed because your great great grandparents would be their great grandparents. Which means that there is a one generation difference.

    • profile image

      tarvan 6 years ago

      My mother's second cousin's son, is he my 4th cousin??? like does it go like this my mother's second cousin would be my 3rd, then his son would be my 4th???????

    • profile image

      houston 6 years ago

      Your first cousin's children are your nephews and nieces right?

    • workingmomwm profile image

      Mishael Austin Witty 7 years ago from Kentucky, USA

      Rachel: No, the relationships don't change, no matter how close in age you are. My daughter (2) is closer in age to her aunt (my husband's half-sister - 16) than she is to her cousins (my husband's brother's son and daughter - 21 and 23), but they are what they are. And my husband's niece has 2 children (6 and a few months old). They're still my daughter's first cousins once removed - not just first cousins.

      Incidentally, during my research, I discovered that my husband and I are actually 8th cousins once removed. And my parents are 7th cousins once removed. I hope that doesn't count as incest!

    • profile image

      Rachel 7 years ago

      My cousins child is only 10 years younger then me (Im 13 and shes 3). Does that still mean shes my first cousin once removed? or does itchange when ur that close of ages?

    • profile image

      Yep 7 years ago

      To Janifox: That's correct.

      To Emma: It's like an absolute value: What's true of one generation up is true of one generation down. For instance, my first cousin's child would be my first cousin, once removed. And I would be her first cousin, once removed. The first, second, third...fifteenth cousins, are the zero line. Everything a generation up or a generation down from there is the same when referring to each other.

    • profile image

      emma 8 years ago

      so then what if you are referring to a cousin who is a generation younger than you?? What are they called?

    • profile image

      janifox 10 years ago

      I'm still a little confused, so my first cousin, is what to my children, first cousin once removed?

    • In The Doghouse profile image

      In The Doghouse 10 years ago from California

      Great information. This has always been somewhat confusing.

    • Veronica profile image

      Veronica 10 years ago from NY

      I've always wondered if I was using that correctly. I'm glad to find out I was! Nice article, well written. Thanks for sharing it!

    • profile image

      dafla 10 years ago

      In other words, your mother's first cousin is your second cousin once removed. Your father's second cousin is your third cousin once removed. It took me awhile to figure this out too. I did a genealogy once, and it came up when I would meet someone who was related.

    • Guru-C profile image

      Cory Zacharia 10 years ago

      Terri, I've always wanted to find a clear explanation of this, and now I have. Thank you! Very informative.