Christina Campbell of Yarralumla
Christina Campbell of Yarralumla : her life story
Here you will find information on Christina's early life, her time at Yarralumla, the house which later became the governor-general of Australia's residence and her memorial is at St Johns Church in Reid.
Photo with permission of National Library of Australia. The caption reads: Frederick Campbell (seated right) with members and friends of the family, probably pictured during the 1890 visit to the district by photographer C.H. Kerry. Mrs Christina Campbell is holding baby Charles, while Jean, daughter of Frederick Campbell's first marriage stands beside her father.
Christina McPhee was born in 1861 in Ipswich, Queensland. Her parents were John McPhee, a Scottish crofter and Anne McPhee (nee Cameron). Her father was employed on a sheep station by Mr. W. Scott of Taromeo one of the oldest pastoral properties in Queensland. Anne McPhee died of Kidney failure in 1866, leaving Christina without either of her parents by the time she was 5 years old. Christina and her sister moved to Queanbeyan in New South Wales and was cared for by an aunt Mary Hope nee Cameron.
It is interesting how details can be obscured by time and distance. Christina's son in law, Charles Newman, wrote of her history in his book, stating that her father was killed by Aborigines. The death certificate clearly says accidental death. A newspaper account of 7 April 1864 details the circumstances of John's accident. Returning to the station one night in 1864 he accidentally ran into a tree, receiving fatal injuries. John is thought to be buried on Taromeo station, one of four graves of staff who worked on the station were dug outside the family graveyard. The stone walled graveyard is famous for being only one of two stone walled family cemeteries in Australia.
Restoration of cemetery at Taromeo Station
The Queensland floods in 2011 devastated the cemetery, with 95% of the wall destroyed and all of the family graves knocked over. Two years later, the cemetery was reopened after a lot of work from stonemasons and volunteers from the community.
A love match
Christie McPhee was Fred Campbell's second wife. In 1880, his first wife Frances, died as so many women did in those days after the birth of their daughter, Sybil Jean Campbell. Christie was governess to Fred's daughter Jean.
In 1889 Fred married Jean’s governess, Christie. They were married at St Paul's Anglican Church, Redfern by Bishop Mesac Thomas of Goulburn. Christina's 1889 diary gives details of their travels through the Pacific, North America, and the British Isles. In Britain they visited the graves of her ancestors near Fort William, Scotland .
Christina is mentioned numerous times in the book Gables, Ghosts and Governors-General.
Christina is described as "... a fine looking woman with a clear skin and erect carriage."
Fred's marriage to Christina "was a marriage of love that caused 'great talk' at the time because many thought that Campbell had married beneath his station"
At Yarralumla, the couple's first son, Charles Bruce, was born in March 1890.
In 1891 Fred pulled down the old house and built the one that stands there today as part of the present Government House.
Christina and Fred had three more children, Kate, Walter and Jack. Jack was an invalid and passed away in 1917.
Charles was a second lieutenant in the 48th squadron of the Royal Flying Corps and was reported missing in action, presumed dead, in November 1917 aged 27, near Cambrai in France.
Christina did not easily accept the news and never gave up hope that her son was still alive. She made Fred provide a trust fund for Charles if he ever returned. After 15 years, this money was distributed to charity.
The Campbell's regularly entertained neighbors, friends, and relatives. Some years later, Christina confided to her daughter, Kate, she felt that the visitors came to meet and view her as she was a local girl who had married her employer. After Fred's cousins visited Yarralumla and were clear in their admiration and respect for her, criticism ceased.
Christina was an active member of the Women's Liberal League of New South Wales, and president of its Queanbeyan branch until 1913.
Resumption of Yarralumla by the Commonwealth
Canberra was selected as the site for the nation's capital. This meant the resuming of a number of properties in the district. Yarralumla was one of them. The Campbells were given 5 weeks notice to leave Yarralumla. They rented Bishopthorpe, the residence of the Bishop of Goulburn for a time. After a fire destroyed the house and left them with only the clothes on their backs and a few sticks of furniture stored in the stables, they moved to Sutton Forest.
In 1914 Frederick purchased Red Hill station near Tumut, NSW from Pat Kiley, coincidentally another relative of mine, although not related to Christina. Red Hill station is thought to be the place written up in Banjo Paterson's poem 'On Kiley's run'.
Governor-Generals residence, Yarralumla, Canberra.
The house once owned by Fred and Christina Campbell is now the Governor-Generals residence. Photo taken 2007.
Mrs. Christina Campbell. 65, late of Yarralumla, in the Federal capital territory, died In Tumut Hospital, after a short Illness. She was the widow of the late Frederick Campbell, formerly owner of Red Hill Station, 28 miles from Tumut. For several years Mrs. Campbell had been residing with her son, Mr. Walter M. Campbell, at The Glen, Brungle, 12 miles from Tumut. She was well known for her work for charity.— The Sydney Morning Herald Friday 19 May 1933
This plaque was erected by Christina's family after her death. The plaque is on the Lych gate at St. John's Church in Reid.
Books with info on Christina Campbell
Links relating to Fred and Christina Campbell
- Obituary - Frederick Arthur (Fred) Campbell - Obituaries Australia
- Papers of Walter Campbell, Christina's son
Includes information on Christina and her family
- Memorial honouring Charles Bruce Campbell
remembering all those who have served, died, or volunteered during conflicts and on peacekeeping missions throughout the world.
The first peoples of Canberra
Featured on ABC TV's Stateline program. In the 2nd excerpt from The Stakeout of Canberra, Richard meets descendants of the Ngunnawal Ngambri Aboriginal tribe.
There are numerous significant sites around the ACT, including Black Mountain and Sullivans Creek.
There have been disputes between Ngambri and Ngunnawal as to which group of people have traditional ownership of this area. This is just one example of the complexities that are part of Aboriginal society today.
- History of Ngambri country
Ngambri are thetraditional custodians of the country south-west of Weereewaa (Lake George), which includes the modern Australian Capital Territory. The name of the capital, Canberra, derives from that of our ancestral group.
"It is believed that the Ngunnawal people are the original inhabitants of the region known as Ngunnawal country"... So starts this resource which is part of an Aboriginal Curriculum Unit aimed at teachers. This resource aims to foster understanding of cultural beliefs and practices.