The Remy Project
The Remy Project: Praise Christ Jesus
The word Esoteric can be a challenge to describe as there are many different conversations that can be had surrounding this word. For this presentation we will discuss how this word relates to glassmakers. The esoteric art of glass making required or exhibited knowledge that was restricted to a small private and confidential group for a hard to understand purpose. My own ancestors partook in glassmaking. Glassmakers were Huguenots who followed the teachings of John Calvin. St. Remy partook in those same teachings and is an Ancient Remy family ancestor who baptized Calvin. My birthday falls on St. Remys Catholic Feast Day. The following below is a journey from my very own Belgian glassmaker genealogy to how it may connect to the Ancient Remy Family. My very own ancestry shares a quite rare commonality from Egypt that this ancient family has. The Ancient Remy family has made history dating back to the founding of the Roman Empire. This family is said to have founded Rheims and is related to historical figures like St. Remy and King Didler Remy (Didier Remy was also known as Didier Rheims) in some of the oldest European history that the world has available. My glassmaker genealogy combined with a quite rare haplogroup from Egypt may mean that I might be an Ancient Remy Family descendant and even more mind blowing connections and discoveries in Egypt regarding the Remi.
French records extending as far back as 437 AD begin chronicling the contributions of the Remy [Ramey] family to northern France. Remarkably, Remy's have been Kings (Didier, King of the Lombards) and Queens (Desiree Remy, sister of Didier and wife of King Charlemagne), Orators and Priests (St. Remy, son of Count Emile de Laon Remy), Treasurers to a King (Pierre Ramey of Lorraine to Charles IV), Noblemen, Landowners, Vintners, and Scholars.
Glassmaker Discovery: Remy Ancestry from Egypt
This turned from mere curiosity to a full on adventure. While visiting the Polynesian Culture Center in Hawaii, I began feeling curious about my own culture because I simply did not know much of anything about my Ancestry, so I Googled a few things.
This adventure all started with a coincidence from curiousity. I started by just researching my name. St. Remy came up first. My birthday (October 1st) falls on the same day Catholic Feast Day of October 1st (which belongs to St. Remy). Most online articles were about this person; so this coincidence wasn't hard to find, but it worked. It drew me in at the time. The name and birthday coincidences caught my eye and I got even more curious, because I always heard that my DNA was from Europe. St. Remy was in Rheims (Rheims happens to be another name for Remy). I continued to do even more research. This was now genuinely fun and wanted to learn more.
I called my Uncle Ray in Ohio and he put me in touch with a Mary Singler; who had done prior in depth research within my family back in 2004. Mary deserves 100% credit for her work as its helped me to this day. As it turns out, my Ancestors were large into the incredibly private esoteric ancient family trade craft of glass making. (Discovery of this information accelerated my research to now focus from Ohio to Belgium). Several photographs are attached of my Ancestors which were almost all glass makers, with some having membership within Masons and Woodworking Men of America and also having historic horticulture abilities worth noting in local newspapers. The Masons also were big in Belgium, which was another coincidence that caught my eye and added more flavor to the line I was researching. On 4/26/18, I spoke to Robert Remy Sr and he mentioned how his father Ramond Remy was a Mason and he regularly attended Lodge meetings in Sandusky Ohio (more below about Freemasonry in Sandusky, Ohio). The glass making / Souffleur trade was originally considered an "Ancient Technology" back in Rome, 1AD. It was also a highly coveted/secretive esoteric art that required confinement in Egypt right before the trade arrived in Belgium. In fact, escape from confinement often meant execution during that time period. This trade was considered the highest of class and those who practiced this craft were protected by the government as if they were nuclear scientists. Hebrew history claims that glass making originated from Ancient Sumeria in Egypt before the Jews started glass making themselves. To me this was wild information to discover.
Understanding this trade then realizing how ancient and secretive suggests to me that my family must've also played a role in passing the trade on; because this trade was almost always passed down from father to son due to the exclusivity of the craft. Furthermore, this trade happened to be in the same geographical region/country that my Ancestors hail from; with history originating from Egypt itself before Belgium. My Ancestry DNA results were absolutely breakthrough as they helped me map out some of my lower percentage rating in areas that glass makers would've loved to make glass in; such as, Caucasus Mountains, Greece/Italy, Pyrenees Mountains, France / Belgium.
My ancestry just so happens to end cold with a "Robert Remi" in my 6th generation. Remi is another way of spelling Remy. I dug more into my name in Belgium and came across some older maps listing the Remi name on actual Belgium maps and several other parallels to draw on much more curiosity and room for new research subjects and about the Remi Tribe in Belgium.
Ancestry DNA test results are below. The lower percentage ranges for the yellow arrows represent the Y-DNA migration route from Egypt. A Y-DNA test through National Geographic Genome 2.0 is next to dig into the actual DNA strand to determine where my Y-DNA markers actually plot to on the world map. This type of ancestry is not important due to the people named. The importance of my Y-DNA results can provide strategic historical insight on the civilizations of the world as glass makers, since they were highly valued and often written into Nobility and hosted by Aristocrat families for centuries. Plus, they seemed to lead the way on civilization building.
St. Remy Coincidence: Am I related? Maybe... As of now, no known genealogy connection to St. Remy, although, we seem to share a seemingly similar, very specific and quite rare Remy origin ancestry from Africa. The name/birthday coincidence is just that. A true coincidence that ended up compelling me to find out all this new authentic information which has opened up the door for much more that continues to blow my mind.
Anyhow, wild and crazy stuff going on with us as usual and I thought this piece of history was definitely worth sharing to the world.
Background: Example of Glass Maker Life and Importance
Most of the glass families were Huguenots who followed the teachings of John Calvin. They were subjected to religious persecution and they suffered the same fate for their beliefs as the Cathars had, centuries before them - and for that matter any other religion that didn’t embrace the Catholic faith. Some Huguenots became legendary in their own right because of their stance against that persecution and some like the Tyzack, Henzells and many other glass families emigrated to other countries in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries where they were free to embrace the Protestant faith. Some remained, practicing their faith in secret.
Ada Polak in her fascinating book “Glass - Its tradition and its makers” tells the story of glass making from medieval times to the industrial age. She describes the development of town and forest glasshouses and how the glassmaker's products were determined by the local cultural, geographical and economical conditions. It's an excellent book for anyone interested in this subject.
Glassmaking and glassblowing was a highly exclusive craft that was based on certain important technical secrets concerning the construction of furnaces, the handling of tools and the ingredients of the batch as well as many other things, which were carefully preserved among members of certain families. If the glassmaker chose his location carefully he could find everything he needed for his craft in a forest: sand for the main body of the glass, plants to burn for ash, lime to give the glass stability, clay for pots, sandstone for furnaces and wood or peat for fuel. Communities grew up around town and forest glasshouses and some glassmaking families became highly privileged across Europe. Family exclusiveness, with its obvious advantages to those within their circle was a general feature to be found in all crafts from the Middle Ages and far into our modern times. In glassmaking it was, however, of particular importance. Close and easy co-operation between the members of the working team was vital to successful glassmaking and this was most easily achieved within a family framework. Glassmaking was an esoteric art, practiced only by the few families privy to its ancient secrets and it was a unique craft of which the artisans formed a highly skilled closed trade and were the elite of French working men. In the nineteenth century, Glassworkers earned more than most other workers in France.
There is much debate about the origins of the nobility of the glassmakers in France. Were they allowed to make glass because they were noble or were they ennobled because they made glass?
One of the oldest privileges granted to the glassmakers is in a document signed by Charles VI, this document dated January 24, 1399 is part of a collection in the Moreau National library, it says that “rights and privileges are given to all people working in glass furnaces, permission is granted to noble birth to exercise the trade of glass without violating their noble status".
In 1445, Charles VII granted privileges to the glassworkers of the Languedoc, and the charter creates a special court and its headquarters are in Sommieres, North East of Montpellier. This institute was to remain the headquarters of the glassworkers until the revolution. In a charter granted by the Duke of Lorraine to the glassmakers of that area of 1448, they were described as “gens nobles extraits de noble line”, and these charters were renewed with ceremony by his son John of Lorraine in 1469. Right up to the time of the revolution, letters of nobility were issued to individual glassmakers. Source: http://www.rhedesium.com/the-noble-glassmakers-of-the-aude.html
Glass History: Earliest Known Glass
The earliest known glass factory, however, was not discovered in Mesopotamia, but in Egypt. This factory, which has been dated to the middle of the 13th century BC, was discovered at Qantir, in the Eastern Nile Delta. During the 13th century BC, this was the city of Piramesses, the capital of Ramesses II. It was at this site that glass-making equipment and material were identified. Source: Ancient Origins
These methods are believed to have been first used by Sumerians in ancient Mesopotamia (Iraq and Syria) more than 5,000 years ago. Glass beads and simple cast pieces dating to approximately 3,500 B.C.. have been found in the region, and glassmaking instruction have even been discovered in ancient Sumerian texts. This new technology was passed around in trade routes to neighboring societies, and over the next 2,000 years, simple glassmaking spread across Mesopotamia and the Middle East. Source: History of Glass, Neatorama
Huguenot Cross: Meaning
Huguenot Cross - Origins
- Origin of the Huguenot Cross — The Huguenot Fellowship
History of the Huguenot Cross
Video: Freemasonry in Sandusky, Ohio
- Sandusky Ohio and the Freemasons - YouTube
The Masonic layout of the streets of Sandusky Ohio!
The Remy Ancestry (1700's to Current)
Legends: Remy's from Egypt - 1941 Example
Ancient Remy Kings and Priests
Ancient French family of Ramey (Remy) was originally a tribe of Gaul (Northern France and Belgium).The family was represented in French history:
Bishop Saint Remi of Rheims (437-533)
Didier Remy, King of the Lombards 750 - 800
"Didier, King of the Lombards beseiged the new Pope Adrian I at Rome.
Charlemagne, King of France had married Desiree, sisther of King Didier.
Charlemagne became tired of her and sent desiree home to the King which caused bad blood between Didier and King Charlemagne.As Charlemagne was a champion of the Church of Rome, the Pope, asaked for Charlemagne's help after King Didier attacked.Charlemagne Attacked the King of the the Lombards and finally besieged him in his most strongly fortified place, Pavia.After 8 years of fighting, King Didier REMY surrendered and Charlemagne banished him to a monastary at Liege, Belgium where he ended his days in saintly style.
Abbot Remi of Strasbourg who died in 768.
Archbishop Remi of Rouen who died in 771.
Didier Remy, the earliest French Family of Remy that we can connect to our Ramey family was enobled 13 Sept 1554 and died in 1556.His son, George Remy, was also ennobled.George's son, Jacque Remy, was born in Ivoy in the Department of Ardennes about 1545-7.Jacques Remy became a Huguenot and was killed in Ivoy.His son, Pierre Remy, who was born about 1600, was also a Huguenot and was killed.Pierre's sons, Jacques Remy, was born about 1630 in Picardy, Lorraine, France.
Jacques "Jacob" Remy (1640-1721) is the original immigrant to the Colony of Virginia in the United States.He was a French Huguenot (Protestant) refugee of noble birth, born in Picardy, Lorraine, France, about 1630.He fled France to avoid persecution and arrived in England sometime around 1654.
By the middle of the 16th century, the Huguenots by their numbers and influence had aroused the fears of the Catholic party and the powerful family of Guise.Eight separate religious wars followed.The Huguenot wase ended in 1598, when Henry IV (who had been a Huguenot but who had agreed to conform to the Roman Catholic Church), issued the Edict of Nantes.this gave the French protestants political rights and religious freedom.The Huguenots were still harassed and persecuted from time to time.When Louis XIV revolked the Edict of Nantes in 1685, all protection of law was withdrawn from the Huguenots.Although they were forbidden to leave France, hundreds of Thousands fled.They carried French arts, manufacturers, and culture to England, Germany, the Netherlands, and the British colonies of North America.Ther were of all social classes, from the pesant to the noble.....artisans, cloth-makers, lace-makers, silk-weavers, glass-makers, printers and manufacturers.Their skills, industry and worth, secured recognitioin and prosperity.There is hardly a branch of literature, science and art in which they have not distinguished themselves.Their descendants may still, to this day, be numerously identified by family name.France lost hundreds of thousands of Huguenots who carried industry, intelligence and prosperity, light, truth, and happiness to other lands, including America.An equal
number of Huguenots were killed or perished in their attempt to escape.
The history of religious persecution of the Huguenots in France, from the massacre of St Bartholomew to the infamous outrages which preceded and followed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, has been thoroughly documented. Source
Glass Makers vs DNA Results. Theory: Follow The Minerals To Find Glass Makers
As you look through the smaller percentages of my Ancestry DNA, you will see all mountains/mineral rich regions are circled (follow the yellow arrows and disregard the red arrows). The India image is specifically circled in Southern Asia; which are extremely mountainous (Himalayas), which to me seems like a great region to make glass. As a matter of fact, it's rumored that the mirror was born in the Himalayas. My questions: White people in Asia? Am I Asian? The questions came quick and I felt confused.
It was not until 1968 that Dr. Donald B. Harden, author of the catalogue of the British Museum’s collection of Greek and Roman Glass, obliquely accepted the "Asian origin for glass". In 1983 Dr. Harden finally removed all doubt, admitting that: "During my two years at Ann Arbor and the next winter season on the excavating staff in Egypt, I naturally became too Egypto-oriented"
I soon read how many scientists around the globe believe the Out of Africa Theory is how white people ended up in India after they migrated from Egypt. Glass makers happen to come from Egypt. It all started to connect. The next percentage from what I believe to be my father's YDNA line heading West is in Caucasus. The only thing that makes sense to me is the Caucasus Mountains, as they have glass making history and the region istelf is vast in glass making resources. Italy/Greece was my next smaller percentage. The island of Crete is known to be extremely rich in resources; which would make a great work location for a glass maker. I had also some small percentages in Italy; which Italy used to be very large into glass making. Reference the "Glass Island of Murano". The next larger, western percentage, was in the Iberian Peninsula (6%). After researching the area for mountains, I stumbled upon the Pyrenees Mountains. This region also has vast resources for glass making and once glass makers had built actual glass houses on this mountains region. From there, I had 87% in the Belgium/France region; which I already had expected to see.
Anticipated YDNA Migration Routes
John Noble Wilford wrote in the New York Times, “In Egypt and the rest of the Middle East in the 13th century B.C., bronze was the heavy metal of power, and glass the rare commodity coveted by the powerful, who treasured glass jewelry, figurines and decorative vessels and exchanged them as prestige gifts on a par with semiprecious stones. Dr. Caroline M. Jackson, an archaeologist at the University of Sheffield in England, said the new finds "convincingly show that the Egyptians were making their own glass in large specialized facilities that were under royal control."
As Egypt expanded throughout the Mediterranean they encountered others cultures with their own glass-making techniques. It is believed that some of the artisans were brought back to Egypt as slaves, where their skills were used to make glass objects for royalty. Glass-making sites close to royal palaces like those at Malqata, Pi-Ramesses, and Lisht suggest that the process of making glass was kept a close royal secret.
Glassmaking was unique among the arts, for it was invented only once in all of human history. Its spread through the world was parallel to, and coincident with, the dispersal of the jews.
Egyptian vases with the name of Ramesses II
Land and Throne of the Remi (Egypt)
Glass Making In Egypt
Exodus 1:1-14 New International Version (NIV)
The Israelites Oppressed
1 These are the names of the sons of Israel who went to Egypt with Jacob, each with his family: 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah; 3 Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin; 4 Dan and Naphtali; Gad and Asher. 5 The descendants of Jacob numbered seventy. Joseph was already in Egypt.
6 Now Joseph and all his brothers and all that generation died, 7 but the Israelites were exceedingly fruitful; they multiplied greatly, increased in numbers and became so numerous that the land was filled with them.
8 Then a new king, to whom Joseph meant nothing, came to power in Egypt. 9 “Look,” he said to his people, “the Israelites have become far too numerous. 10 Come, we must deal shrewdly with them or they will become even more numerous and, if war breaks out, will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the country.
11 So they put slave masters over them to oppress them with forced labor, and they built Pithom and Rameses for Pharaoh. 12 But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread; so the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites 13 and worked them ruthlessly. 14 They made their lives bitter with harsh labor and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their harsh labor the Egyptians worked them ruthlessly.
- Exodus 1:5 Masoretic Text (see also Gen. 46:27); Dead Sea Scrolls and Septuagint (see also Acts 7:14 and note at Gen. 46:27) seventy-five
National Geographic Genome 2.0 YDNA and MtDNA results
Update: On September 11th, 2017, I received my deep ancestry results from the National Geographic Genome 2.0 test. This was it. The big day. To me, this was either going to make or break my hypothesis above. So what are the results?
In short, my results add to my hypothesis. Not only did my Paternal (father) line originate from Africa, but so did my maternal (mother) line! Not only that, my fathers Haplogroup specifically migrated from Egypt to Southern Asia; which adds to my theory above about glass makers migrating from Egypt to Southern Asia. My migration trail has a haplogroup of M168 (70,000 years ago); which is said to be one of the first migration trails out of Africa.
"The father who gave rise to the first genetic marker in this lineage probably lived in northeast Africa in the region of the Rift Valley, perhaps in present-day Ethiopia, Kenya, or Tanzania. Scientists put the most likely date for when he lived at around 70,000 years ago. His descendants became the only lineage to survive outside of Africa, making him the common ancestor of every non-African man living today." - Source: National Geographic Genome 2.0
The next mutation discovered immediately after M168 was P143. Here is why P143 is relevant: "This mutation is one of the oldest thought to have occurred outside of Africa and therefore marks a pivotal moment in the evolution of modern humans. Moving along the coastline, members of this lineage were some of the earliest settlers in Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia." Source: National Geographic Genome 2.0
Down below are images of my results:
R-L23 and J1B1A1 Haplogroups
Haplogroup R-L23 in Egypt (Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype)
Human Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b are quite rare in Africa, being found mainly in Asia and Europe Source: Cradle of Civilization
Remy Paternal Haplogroup Origins and Migration
Rare: R-L23 (Descendant of R1B) in Africa
Animated Video - Human Migration
Descendants of Noah: Theory
Glassmaker artisans were known to be slaves for the Pharaoh. The Son's of Jacob were also slaves. Glassmaking came from Ur (Iraq), Abraham's birthplace. The Son's of Jacob are descendants of Abraham. Abraham is a descendant of Noah. The Ancient French Family of Remy Research mentions how one variation of the Egyptian names for Remy were Descendants of Noah (Rahmites). See the orange circle in the image below:
Common Father: Amun-Ra (Ammon-Ra)
Amun had many names and served several roles in Egyptian mythology and Egyptians often worshiped Amun’s family along with him. Depictions of Amun are found throughout Egypt as are his legends. Over time, the Egyptians combined Amun with Ra to form Amun-Ra. Alternate spellings of this name include Amen-Ra, Amon-Ra, Amon-Re, Amun-Re and Ammon-Ra. Egyptians referred to Amun-Ra as “one one” and “no second” because they considered him the supreme god.
- Amun was a creator god worshiped through Egypt.
- Pharaohs were the ‘son of Amun.’
- His cult gained enough power and wealth to threaten the pharaoh.
- Women who were the “god’s wife of Amun” held important places in the cult.
- Some pharaohs used Amun to legitimize their reigns.
- Thebes was the center of his worship.
- Some of Amun’s grandest temples were in Thebes.
The Praises of Ra
The Ancient Remy Family research in 1942 describes the "Common Father" as Rie/Die (unclear). Ra was also spelled as Re. and the following is found inscribed on the walls of royal tombs of the XIXth and XXth Dynasties at Thebes: "Praise be to thee, O Rā, exalted Sekhem, the avenger of Nu who cometh forth from what is in him ; thou art indeed the bodies of the God Remi"
Ra is Adam
Atum whose Hebrew name is "Adam," was worsihpped in Ancient Egypt
(Amun/AtumAmen/Amen-RA) as the God of Gods, and as the First God to to Manifest in Flesh on Earth and also as the King of Kings and Conquering Lion.
Rem ( "to weep"), also Rem-Rem, Remi, or Remi the Weeper, who lives in Rem-Rem, the realm of weeping was a fish god in Egypt who fertilized the land with his tears, producing both vegetation and the reptiles He is assumed to be the personification of Ra's tears.
Source: E. A. Wallis Budge (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians: Or, Studies in Egyptian Mythology. 1. Methuen & Company. p. 319
Rahmites, Phoenician Glass and Samuel (Post-Exodus)
Rahmites are mentioned as descendants of Noah. Rahmite is also referred to as Ramah, Raamah, and/or Ra'am. One of Noah's actual descendants is named Raamah and he had is own city in Isreal close to Tyre (Phoenicians). Raamah's city was called Ramah and this is supposedly where everyone went after the Exodus.
Some professionals around the world claim that the Phoenicians were the first to know glass-making. If glass came from Egypt via my ancestors to Ramah; then that means glass must've been introduced to the Phoenicians by those from Egypt after the Exodus (Theory).
The Roman historian Pliny attributed the origin of glassmaking to Phoenician sailors.
The city of Ramah is remembered as a city that the prophet Samuel resided in. Samuel 8:4 "So all the elders of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah".
"Samuel is a figure in the Hebrew Bible who plays a key role in the narrative, in the transition from the period of the biblical judges to the institution of a kingdom under Saul, and again in the transition from Saul to David. He is venerated as a prophet by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In addition to his role in the Hebrew Scriptures, Samuel is mentioned in the New Testament.
Ramah aka Rameh Location
Uncommon Genetic and Anthropometric Data
After I had conducted all of the above ancestry research, I decided it would be worth some fun to see what my genetics look like. The test I decided to take was the DNAfit by Startline. Startline compares your genes across 8000 elite athletes across a variety of different sports. Why not give it a try? The results were insane. I scored a 10/10 in 3/5 broad categories: 10/10 for Sprint, 10/10 for Game Sports and a 10/10 for Strength/Speed sports. I scored a 8/10 for strength sports and a 7/10 for endurance sports. I chart well above the world average and above the actual world average for the 8000 elite athletes in the database. Below are images of the results:
Uncommon Results: Genetic Benchmark Compared to 8000 Elite Athletes
King Tut's DNA is Western European
The crystal ‘Nimrod Lens’ from Nineveh (Kuyunjik, Iraq)
The First Glass Was Sumerian | The crystal ‘Nimrod lens’ from Nineveh (Kuyunjik, Iraq)
In 1853, Sir David Brewster (1781-1868) presented a lens to the British Association for the Advancement of Science that had been found in excavations by Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894) at Nineveh (Kuyunjik, Iraq). It had been found in deposits dated around 600 BC and although its provenance was not in question, doubts were raised about its function. Whilst it clearly works as a lens, it was thought to have been used as a decoration in a piece of jewelry.
The irony with the Nimrod lens being found in Ur is that Nimrod was once a terrible hunter-king after the flood. Nimrod is mentioned as a descendant of Noah.
The art of glassmaking was born in Akkadia, the Biblical Shinar, the home of the tribe of Terach, father of Abraham, about 2400 B.C.E.
Conclusion: Future Quests & Adventures
I had never would have guessed that a project like this that was started as a basic ancestry project would furnish the findings provided above. Each step I took, there would be another place for me to step. It's incredible to possibly have a migration trail out of Egypt that seems to run right up to Exodus's door, etc... I'm more convinced than not that this was worth pursuing as this is a sincere gift from the lord and this is a a literal blessing that is so awesome I can barely contain it.
I now have more than enough excuses to travel the world. I would eventually like to have more genealogy work done. Belgium will obviously be my first stop, then from there who knows where this adventure will take me. I want to now take my very first glass making class in Skagway, Alaska, then purchase my own set up. I will learn to how to make my very own glass pieces that will be made as a result of this mind blowing quest.
The Journey of Your Past | National Geographic
Ancestry DNA Video
Ancestry DNA Introduction
DNAFit DNA Test
Miscellaneous: Remi Tribe
Miscellaneous Information: Remi Tribe
A tribe called the "Remi Tribe" had once resided in the same geographical area that my 3-6th great grandfather's lived. The Remi were known to be famed horsemen; brave, unrelenting, and powerful, their cavalry was known to ride over opposition, and rout numerically superior enemies. Their Mairepos (Mar-ep-os; "Great Horses") were able to smash right through infantry. Their armor, shields, and their weapons were always of superior quality, and their skill was unquestionable. They were dominant over other Gallic heavy cavalry, but they hailed only from one tribe.
Historically, the Remi were a feared Belgae tribe. Their cavalry was remarkable compared to that of the Gauls, and they made good account of themselves in all battles where they were present, regardless of the outcome. They acted bravely, and performed many actions that would have been suicidal if not for their training and skill, and probably also their fearsome reputation that stifled most enemies far before battle.
- The Pyrenees Mountains Map and Details
- The History of Mirror: Through A Glass, Darkly - Bienenstock Furniture Library
History of the mirror is almost as long, and as fascinating, as that of humankind itself. From bronze mirror, to mercury glass, to modern art—a quick review
- Salt, copper, gold: Early mining in the Caucasus
The Caucasus was one of the most important ore-containing mountain ranges of the ancient world, or more specifically of the ancient Orient. As the country of the “Golden Fleece”, it includes the western part of Georgia, Colchis, a name synonymous, in
- Murano, the Glass Island - A Travel Guide
An 11-page, smartphone-friendly guide to Murano, Italy, an island in the Venetian Lagoon where glass has been made for more than 700 years. From Veniceforvisitors.com.
- Glass blowing factory in Kokkinο Horio | Kids Love Greece
Kids Love Greece | Υοur Local Family Travel Guide
- HHF Factpaper: The Glassmakers; The Biblical Period
Glassmaking was invented among progenitors of the Jews in Akkadia. Glassmaking was continued by Israelite and Judahite artisans after the archaic period.
- cronology of the remy family in france