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Buckwheat Facts and a Gluten-Free Chocolate Cookie Recipe

Updated on November 1, 2020
AliciaC profile image

Linda Crampton is a teacher with an honors degree in biology. She enjoys exploring nutrition as well as the culture and history of food.

Buckwheat bread is tasty and nutritious.
Buckwheat bread is tasty and nutritious. | Source

What Is Buckwheat?

Buckwheat is a nutritious and very useful grain substitute. Despite its name, it isn’t a type of wheat or even a grain. It belongs to the same family as rhubarb and doesn’t contain gluten. The fruits and seeds of the buckwheat plant have great health benefits for everyone, including people who have celiac disease or another gluten intolerance problem.

Buckwheat fruits are usually obtained from Fagopyrum esculentum, which is also known as the common buckwheat. Unlike grains, this plant has broad, heart-shaped leaves. It also has clusters of small flowers that are white or light pink in color and have a pleasant scent. The fruit consists of a seed covered by a black hull.

Buckwheat is sold as whole fruits or as groats, which are the seeds with their hulls removed. The groats are triangular in shape and have a green or light brown seed coat, depending on the type of buckwheat. They soften when boiled in water. Buckwheat is also sold as grits, which are groats that have been cut into pieces, and as a flour, which is made by grinding the seeds with their hulls or the groats without their hulls into a powder.

Buckwheat seeds or groats
Buckwheat seeds or groats | Source

Gluten and Celiac Disease

Buckwheat is a good food for everyone. Since it lacks gluten, it can be an especially important food for people with celiac disease. In people with this disorder, the ingestion of gluten causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine. The attack causes inflammation that damages the villi, which are the folds that line the interior of the intestine. Without healthy villi, the absorption of nutrients is greatly decreased.

As a result of the inflammation and villi damage, a patient may experience a range of health problems in addition to intestinal ones. It's vital that they avoid gluten in their diet. Since gluten is found in many grains, grain substitutes such as buckwheat can be very useful.

Uses of Buckwheat

Buckwheat grits are used to make a porridge. The groats are added to soups, stews, or salads, just like rice or barley. Roasted buckwheat groats form a dish known as kasha, which is often eaten as a savory porridge. The groats are also used to make a beer. The flour is used to produce bread, noodles, and pancakes, which are very popular in some countries. It's also used in cake and cookie recipes.

Bees that collect their nectar from buckwheat flowers produce a dark, flavorful honey that contains more antioxidants than most lighter honey types. Antioxidants may have a number of health benefits, including the prevention of cell damage by chemicals known as oxidants.

The fruits and dead flowers of a buckwheat plant
The fruits and dead flowers of a buckwheat plant | Source

Some people sleep on a pillow filled with buckwheat hulls. This may sound uncomfortable, but proponents say that a buckwheat pillow helps to reduce neck pain. The pillow may not be help all cases of neck pain, however. Caution is needed.

Nutritional Value of Buckwheat Groats

The protein level in buckwheat is higher than in most grains. In addition, buckwheat protein contains a good quantity of all the essential amino acids that our bodies need but are unable to make. In contrast, the protein in many grains is low in the amino acid lysine.

Buckwheat is rich in carbohydrate and is a good source of fiber. It provides us with a range of B vitamins (but not vitamin B12) and is a very good source of magnesium, manganese, and copper. It also contains a significant quantity of other minerals, including phosphorus, zinc, iron, potassium, and selenium. In addition, it contains a small amount of fat. The fat consists of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in approximately equal amounts as well as a slightly lower amount of saturated fatty acids.

Like many plant foods, buckwheat does contain some substances that reduce absorption of its nutrients, such as phytic acid. Sprouting and cooking buckwheat seeds removes many of these so-called "anti-nutrients."

Potential Health Benefits of Buckwheat

Buckwheat delivers all of the health benefits of the nutrients that it contains. It may also be beneficial due to some of its other components. Like other plants, it contains chemicals known as phytochemicals or phytonutrients. One of the phytochemicals in buckwheat is rutin, which belongs to a family known as flavonoids. Rutin may strengthen the walls of capillaries, lower high blood pressure, and act as an anti-inflammatory substance.

Another potential benefit of buckwheat is that it may lower the level of LDL cholesterol (the so-called "bad" cholesterol) in the blood. Buckwheat is also being investigated for its ability to lower the blood glucose level and help people with type 2 diabetes.

The preliminary research into the health benefits of buckwheat is very interesting, but more evidence is needed to confirm the results of this research. Some studies have been done on lab animals instead of humans, and some evidence comes from only one research project. It's already known that buckwheat is a great food to add to the diet because of its nutritional content, though.

A Useful Flour

Buckwheat flour made from seeds with their hulls has a nutty taste. It has a dark color and contains black flecks produced from the hulls. Scientists have found that the hulls contain valuable nutrients, including flavonoids, which we lose when the hulls are removed.

Light buckwheat flour is made from hulled seeds and has a more neutral taste and a more appealing appearance for some people. It contains beneficial nutrients, but not as many as the dark flour.

Some people prefer to mix dark buckwheat flour with other gluten-free flours in their recipes so that they get a texture, color, or taste that they like. I often use a combination of dark buckwheat flour and sorghum flour, which is a nutritious and tasty mix. Like buckwheat, sorghum contains no gluten. Oat flour is a useful addition to the mix, too. It's important for people to buy an oat product that is guaranteed to be free of gluten if they have a problem with the substance.

If you have a serious gluten intolerance such as celiac disease, make sure that you check your flours to see if they are certified gluten-free by an independent laboratory. Grains and grain substitutes can sometimes become contaminated with gluten-containing grains while growing in the field, when placed in a storage facility which has recently stored grains containing gluten, or during processing of the grains into a flour.

Chocolate Cookie Ingredient Facts

I love all recipes that contain chocolate. Buckwheat flour works very well in chocolate cookies. I usually mix my buckwheat flour with sorghum flour, though. A combination of flours seems to work best when baking products that don't contain gluten. Potato, tapioca, or corn starch mixed with the flours adds a light texture to the cookies and helps to maintain moisture.

Xanthan gum is generally considered to be the best substitute for gluten in gluten-free foods, since it provides the binding ability that flours without gluten lack. The gum is sold as a powder. A bag of xanthan gum is quite expensive, at least in my area, but since only a little is used in each recipe it lasts for a long time.

Xanthan gum is a natural substance made by a bacterium called Xanthomonas campestris when it ferments carbohydrates. The gum is used as a thickener in other products besides food without gluten. It's also used as a stabilizer in cosmetics to prevent the ingredients from separating,

I try to use healthier ingredients in my recipe like dark buckwheat flour, whole, unrefined sugar in small quantities, and shortening containing mainly unsaturated fats and no hydrogenated fats. If you mustn't eat any gluten, make sure that the baking powder, the shortening, and the rice or other non-dairy milk are gluten-free.

A farmer shows his cocoa beans drying in the sun.
A farmer shows his cocoa beans drying in the sun. | Source

Cocoa Health Benefits

Cocoa has some interesting health benefits, including reducing blood pressure and improving the health of blood vessels. It's also believed to increase the level of HDL cholesterol in the blood. This type of cholesterol is healthy, as opposed to LDL cholesterol, which is potentially harmful if it reaches a high level in the blood. In addition, cocoa may improve our thinking skills. Cocoa that is rich in flavonoids has more health benefits than cocoa that is lower in flavonoids. It should be noted that the potential health benefits of cocoa have been discovered in cocoa powder added to water, not in baked goods.

Although ingesting cocoa for health seems like a great idea, there is a problem with the idea. Products containing cocoa often contain lots of fat and sugar, which is definitely not healthy. In addition, the clinical trials with cocoa have often used a variety that is very high in flavonoids and not generally available to the public. The best that we can do is to buy the most natural form of cocoa that is available. Cocoa that has undergone the "Dutch" process tastes less bitter, but it also contains fewer flavonoids.

Flavonoids are a family of plant chemicals. Within this family are smaller subgroups, including one known as the flavanol group. Articles referring to the beneficial chemicals in cocoa may call them by their family name (flavonoids) or by their subgroup name (flavanols).

Chocolate buckwheat cookies
Chocolate buckwheat cookies | Source

Ingredients for the Cookies

This recipe produces about twenty soft cookies on a 17 inch by 11 inch baking sheet or cookie pan.

Dry Ingredients
1 cup buckwheat flour
1/2 cup sorghum flour
1/2 cup potato starch
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup cocoa
3/4 cup brown sugar
I tablespoon baking powder

Wet Ingredients
1/2 cup vegan shortening
3/4 cup gluten-free rice milk
1 tablespoon vanilla

Cookies ready to go in the oven
Cookies ready to go in the oven | Source


  1. Before making the cookie dough, preheat the oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit.
  2. Mix the dry ingredients together.
  3. Mix the wet ingredients together.
  4. Mix the dry and wet ingredients.
  5. Place balls of dough on a nonstick baking sheet or cookie pan and slightly flatten the balls.
  6. Bake for fifteen minutes, but check the cookies after twelve minutes.
  7. Remove the cookies from the oven and cool for about five minutes.
  8. Remove the cookies from the pan and cool on a wire rack.

Buckwheat in My Kitchen

Buckwheat can be used for far more than making cookies. It's a versatile grain substitute that is a very useful addition to a kitchen. It's a great food for everyone, whether or not they are gluten intolerant.

I nearly always have a buckwheat product in my home, whether it's in the form of the intact seeds, a cereal, or a flour. I appreciate both its taste and the nutrition that it provides.


This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2011 Linda Crampton


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    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for the comment, Cocoa Bean.

    • profile image

      Cocoa Bean 

      2 years ago

      Yumm! I love that these are gluten-free! Thanks for sharing!

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      6 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      I'm sorry that your daughter has celiac disease, MartieG. I have problems with wheat, which is why I'm interested in alternate grains and grain substitutes, but I don't have celiac disease. I know that it can be a hard disorder to live with, since gluten is so pervasive in foods and other products that we use.

    • MartieG profile image

      MartieG aka 'survivoryea' 

      6 years ago from Jersey Shore

      My oldest daughter has severe celiac disease and I love learning something new that I can prepare when she visits. Rhubard.......who knew!

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      6 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Rebecca. I suspect that a lot of people would be surprised about the rhubarb relationship! Thank you for the comment.

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      6 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the visit, Susan. I hope you have a good vacation!

    • rebeccamealey profile image

      Rebecca Mealey 

      6 years ago from Northeastern Georgia, USA

      The cookies look delicious. I was surprised to learn that buckwheat is related to rhubarb!

    • Just Ask Susan profile image

      Susan Zutautas 

      6 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      When I get back home from vacation I will try your recipe. Sounds good.

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      9 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, vocalcoach. Thanks a lot for the visit and the vote. It's actually interesting to discover how many gluten-free grains and grain substitutes are available now!

    • vocalcoach profile image

      Audrey Hunt 

      9 years ago from Idyllwild Ca.

      I am so pleased to learn more about buckwheat. And all this time I thought it was a flour :) Appreciate the recipe which I will try. Also, am forwarding this on to my sister who is on a gluten-free diet. Voted UP. vc

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      9 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you, Chatkath! There's quite a large selection of gluten-free flours available now, so it's getting easier for people to find a flour or a combination of flours which has the properties that they want.

    • Chatkath profile image


      9 years ago from California

      Sounds good to me, I hear so much about gluten free now and I have been wanting to try more of my own baking gluten free so this I will try! Thanks for sharing Alicia!

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      9 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks for the comment and for the vote, MovieMaster! Buckwheat is quick and easy to prepare and just needs to be boiled in water until it's soft. I often have buckwheat porridge for breakfast.

    • Movie Master profile image

      Movie Master 

      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Alicia, I knew very little about buckwheat and am keen now to try it, these cookies sound like a good starting place!

      A very useful and interesting hub, thank you for sharing and voting up.

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      9 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Simone. I like buckwheat as a grain substitute in baked products, in porridge and in savory foods, and I like the fact that it's nutritious too! Thanks for the comment.

    • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

      Linda Crampton 

      9 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, klaceyjsmith. I sympathize with your situation. If you ever do decide to follow a gluten-free diet, you could choose baked goods that contain high fiber, stone ground grains or flour made from legumes. There are a lot of refined grain and high sugar gluten-free baked goods and cereals in the stores which I think would be a bad food choice for people with hypoglycemia or for anyone else!

    • Simone Smith profile image

      Simone Haruko Smith 

      9 years ago from San Francisco

      I had no idea that buckwheat wasn't flour and that it was fair game for those going without gluten. I'm so glad I read this! The cookies sound great, too!

    • klaceyjsmith profile image


      9 years ago from Raleigh, NC

      I love the concept of a Gluten free diet, but, when I looked at it, being a bad hypoglycemic, my choices of food were seriously limited and way too constrictive. Not only that, even though it's a great diet and better for you, it would take a large amount of planning and preparation for me which, being so busy, like so many others in this day and age, I just wouldn't be able to commit that much time to it. Maybe one day?


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