ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

How is Coffee Made?

Updated on January 6, 2017
Photo by Julius Schorzman
Photo by Julius Schorzman

Over 2.25 billion cups of coffee are consumed in the world every day.

Coffee is the seeds, or beans, of any of a group of tropical evergreen shrubs of the genus Coffea, in the Madder family (Rubiaceae). Coffee is the second most important product in international commerce on the basis of volume traded, and it is estimated to be the first on the basis of value. The value of coffee imports is estimated to be about $20 billion a year, or 1% of total world trade. Most coffee is consumed in the form of a beverage, although large quantities are used in flavors and extracts. Very small amounts are made into diverse products such as perfume (from blossoms rather than beans) and animal feed. Research indicates that coffee beans can be used to make many other items such as tar, pitch, fuels, plastic, antiseptics, and wall and floor materials.

Coffee contains two principal chemical compounds that provide its familiar qualities as a beverage. The first, caffeine, has a stimulating effect; the second, caffeol, supplies flavor and aroma.

Coffee (Turkish kahveh, from Arabic qahweh, wine, the coffee beverage), beverage made from the roasted seeds of the coffee-tree. Botanically there are three main types of coffee: arabica (believed to have originated in Ethiopia but now yielding the bulk of the coffee in the western hemisphere), the more hardy robusta (a native of the Congo but widely grown elsewhere), and liberica (mainly from west Africa).

Coffee was unknown to the ancients and to the medieval world outside Ethiopia. It was not introduced even into Arabia until the 15th century, and did not reach Europe for another hundred years. Rauwolf made it known to Europeans by an account of his travels, printed in 1573. The plant was taken from Mocha to Batavia by Wieser, burgomaster of Amsterdam, in the 17th century, and thence spread to Martinique (1720, from France), and has flourished in the West Indies ever since. The chief different kinds of coffee are Mocha (from Arabia, with yellowy-brown beans), Java (with large yellow beans), Jamaica and east Indian (with large blue-green beans), Surinam (which has the largest beans), and Bourbon (with pale yellowish-white beans). There are numerous ways of preparing coffee for the table. Westerners generally strain the liquid of all sediment. On the other hand the Turks drink their coffee thick.

A number of cheaper substitutes are frequently used instead of coffee, or mixed with the ground berries, notably chicory root, dandelion root, cereal, carrot, and yellow iris seeds. The seeds of Astragalus baeticus are known on the Continent as Swedish coffee. All these lack the chief constituent, caffeine, and are much inferior. However for reasons of health some people prefer to drink decaffeinated coffee. Real coffee is very refreshing, stimulating the system and diminishing the waste of tissues (see tea). It is an antidote to opium or alcohol poisoning. Its four chief constituents are caffeine, volatile oil, and caffeotannic and caffeic acids. The coffee trade is very important, Brazil being by far the biggest producer. Coffee is also exported on a large scale from Mexico, Central America, Indonesia, and East Africa.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)