- Food and Cooking»
- Food Safety
Introduction of the Flow of Food
Flow of Food
- It refers to the movement of food items from the beginning upon receiving to the ending when reheating.
- Food must be protected to prevent it from getting contaminated.
8 Steps of Flow of Food
1. Purchasing - It means the buying of food items from verified suppliers.
2. Receiving - It means the delivery of food items.
3. Storing - It means keeping food items in their appropriate storage areas for future use.
4. Preparing - It means making food items ready for cooking.
5. Cooking - It means the art of turning different food items into a one wonderful dish.
6. Holding - It means allowing a dish to maintain its right temperature until service.
7. Reheating - It means heating a dish to maintain its safe temperature.
8. Serving - It means making dishes available for consumption.
4 Ways to Contaminate Food
3. Utensils and Equipment
4. Other food
5 Ways to Prevent Cross Contamination
1. Clean and sanitize food surfaces, utensils and equipment.
2. Practice good personal hygiene.
3. Prepare food in separate areas.
4. Separate raw and ready to eat foods.
5. Use separate equipment and utensils for each type of food.
Temperature Danger Zone
- It refers to the range of temperature where in bacteria can rapidly multiply.
- It ranges from 41F to 140F.
3 Ways to Avoid Time and Temperature Abuse
1. Cook food in their proper temperature.
2. Hold food at the proper temperature.
3. Reheat food properly.
4 Effective Practices to ensure that Food is Safe
1. Store Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF) quickly.
2. Only prepare small batches of PHF items.
3. Check the food temperature regularly.
4. Use the correct procedures when cooking, cooling, defrosting and reheating food items.
Introductory chapters set the scene and update the reader on HACCP developments over the last 15 years. The preliminary stages of HACCP, including preparation, planning and system design, are covered first, followed by a consideration of food safety hazards and their control. Prerequisite program coverage has been significantly expanded in this new edition, reflecting its development as a key support system for HACCP.
- Also known as “Record Keeping”
- Is a good way to make sure that correct practices are followed and equipment is functioning properly
- Must be accurate and up to date
- It is an instrument used for measuring temperature.
- It has a narrow, sealed, marked glass tube with an end bulb containing mercury.
6 Parts of a Food Thermometer
1. Indicator Head - Refers to the numbered marking used in determining the temperature.
2. Calibration Nut - Refers to an adjustable nut to keep thermometer reading accurately.
3. Holding Clip - Refers to the clip holding the thermometer.
4. Stem - Also known as “Probe”. - Refers to whole part that is inserted to the food item.
5. Sensing Area - Refers to the part of stem that directly touches the food item being measured.
6. Dimple - Refers to the end part of the sensing area.
3 Types of Thermometer
- A type of thermometer used for taking the temperature of thick foods or large portions.
- This thermometer must be inserted inside the thickest part of the food for accurate reading.
- It must be calibrated on a daily basis.
2. Tip Sensitive
- A type of thermometer used for taking temperature for both thick and thin food items.
- A type of thermometer used for taking temperature of foods or equipment.
- This thermometer can’t be used for taking internal food temperature.
- It must not be used in taking temperatures of food items when cooking, cooling or reheating food items.
6 Important Guidelines When Using Thermometers
1. Calibrate thermometer every day or more often.
2. Clean and sanitize thermometer before using. As well as when checking temperatures of different food items.
3. Take temperature from the thickest part of the food.
4. Perform multiple checking of temperature for every food item.
5. Stop moving when reading temperature.
6. Wait for about 30 seconds or until the indicator stops moving before taking the temperature.
2 Methods of Calibrating Food Thermometers
1. Iced Point Method
2. Boiling Point Method
5 Steps of Performing Iced Point Method
1. Fill a large container with crushed ice.
2. Add clean water into the container.
3. Put the thermometer stem or probe into the iced water. The sensing area must be completely submerged in the water.
4. Wait for 30 seconds or until the indicator stop moving.
5. Hold the calibration nut securely with a wrench and rotate the head of the thermometer until it reads 32F or 0C.
- OVEN DIGITAL MEAT THERMOMETER with easy preselect cooking temperatures no guessing required. Simply select your meat from the menu followed by your cooking preference.
- TOUCH SCREEN DISPLAY with bright back light makes for quick read and very easy operational activity.
- CONVENIENT built in alarm and countdown timer to get your attention when the food is cooked. With a magnet and pull out stand to place in a convenient spot.
- ALSO INCLUDED - 2 AAA batteries a sheath, cloth bag and Velcro strap to protect and store the stainless steel probe and thermometer when not in use.
5 Steps of Performing Boiling Point Method
1. Pour water in a deep pan.
2. Bring water to boil.
3. Put the thermometer stem or probe into the boiling water. The sensing area must be completely submerged in the water.
4. Wait for 30 seconds or until the indicator stop moving.
5. Hold the calibration nut securely with a wrench or tool and rotate the head of the thermometer until it reads the boiling point temperature of 2012F or 100C.
4 Steps of Cleaning and Sanitizing a Food Thermometer
1. Wipe away any visible food waste.
2. Wash the probe in warm water and detergent.
3. Sanitize it using alcohol swabs or hot water.
4. Allow the probe to completely air dry.
How to Manage Kitchen and Kitchen Staff?
- Receiving Food Procedures
Important Guidelines When Receiving Goods 1. Staff must be trained on how to accept and reject goods delivered. 2. Logs must be maintained whenever goods were accepted or rejected.
- Illness and Injury Reporting of Kitchen Staff
Gastrointestinal Illness (G.I.) - It is an infection that affects gastrointestinal system of the body. The G.I. Tract includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.