ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Food and Cooking»
  • Farms & Farming

Types of Farming in India

Updated on October 28, 2014
Farmers working in Agricultural Lands
Farmers working in Agricultural Lands

Agriculture in India

In India, there are two main agricultural seasons in a year. The Kharif season or the summer season; and The Rabi season or the Winter season.

The Kharif season starts in June when the South-West monsoon starts. Seeds are sown in June and July and crops are harvested in September and October. Crops which require large quantities of water are cultivated during the Kharif season. The main Kharif crops are rice, sugar-cane, jute, cotton, tobacco, maize etc. These crops cover 65% of total cultivated area.

The Rabi Season starts in the middle of October when the south-west monsoon retreats and the north-east Monsoon begins. Seeds are sown in October and crops are harvested in March and April. Generally, crops which require less water are grown during the rabi season. The main rabi crops are wheat, barley, gram, mustard, linseed etc. These crops require cooler conditions and less moisture Rabi crops account for 33% of cropped area.

Besides the above two groups of crops, there are certain crops which are grown throughout the year in all parts of the country under artificial irrigation, they are called zaid crops. The chief Zaid crops are rice, maize, melons, groundnut, water melons, cucumber, leafy and tuber vegetables etc.

Dry Farming

Dry farming is a system under which farming is carried on in the regions where the rainfall is scanty i.e. less than 50 Cm annually and where irrigation facilities are either absent or very little. It is followed in Gujarat, Rajasthan, South Punjab, Northern Maharashtra; Generally, single-cropping is practised under this system. Under this system, only those crops which can withstand drought conditions, such as Jowar and Bajra are grown.

Humid Farming

Humid Farming is a system of farming practised in regions where the rainfall is adequate i.e. between 100 Cm to 200 Cm without the help of irrigation. It is followed in the West Coast, West Bengal, Parts of Bihar, U.P and Assam. Under this system, generally, double cropping (i.e. growing of two crops in a year on the same land) is practised. Rice, Sugarcane, jute etc. are cultivated under this system.

Irrigation Farming

Irrigation farming is a system of farming under which crops are grown with the help of irrigation i.e. supply of water from rivers, reservoirs, tanks, wells to land for cultivation in regions of seasonal or low rainfall. It is followed in Western U.P., Punjab, Haryana, parts of Bihar, Orissa, A.P., Tamil Nadu, Karnataka etc. Under this system, multiple or double cropping is practiced. A large variety of crops, such as rice, sugarcane, cotton, wheat, tobacco etc. are grown under this system.

Shifting Cultivation

Shifting cultivation means the migratory subsistence farming. Under this system, a plot of land is cultivated for a few years and then, when the crop yield declines because of soil exhaustion and the effects of pests and weeds, is deserted for another area. Here the ground is again cleared by slash-and-burn methods, and the procedure is repeated. Shifting cultivation is predominant in the forest areas of Assam (Known as jhum), Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunchal Predesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh (Podu). Rainfed rice, Maize, buck wheat, small millets, root crops and vegetables are grown on the burnt over clearings.

Plantation Farming

Plantation farming means the cultivation of a single cash crop in plantations or estates (large areas of land) on a large scale. The farming is carried on with the help of technically advanced methods of cultivation and tools. The tea plantations of Assam and West Bengal, coffee plantations of Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu and rubber plantations of Kerala are the examples of Plantation farming in India.


Single, Double and Multiple Cropping

Single cropping also known as mono-cropping or mono-culture is a system of farming under which the cultivators grow one crop from the lands during the year. It is generally undertaken in those areas where soil and climatic conditions are most favourable for the production of a particular crop only. Example: Tea, Coffee, etc.

Double cropping is a system under which two crops are raised by the farmers from the same plot of land during the year. It is practiced in densely populated countries where soil and climatic conditions favor the cultivation of two crops during the year. Example: Rice.

Multiple cropping is a system under which the farmer grown more than two crops from the same plot of land during the year. It is a highly intensive system of farming. For the success of this system, the soils must be cultivated intensively by providing scientific fertilizers, better seeds and regular water supply through irrigation. Example: Cotton, tobacco, vegetables.

Mixed Cropping

Mixed cropping means the cultivation of more than one crop simultaneously on the same piece of land. The two crops are sown together but harvested at different times because the growth period of the plants of the different crop varies. Early maturing crops are mixed with groundnut, cotton or pulses which mature late. The crops are so mixed that soil nutrients removed by some are replaced by others, at least partly.

Arable Farming

It is a system under which the farms are used only for the cultivation of crops i.e. food crops and cash crops. Mixed farming is a system under which the lands used not only for the cultivation of crops, but also for other purposes, such as stock-raising, poultry farming, sericulture, bee-keeping etc.

Crop Rotation

The system of farming by which different crops are alternately grown on the same land in a specific order. Among the advantages of a rotation are the more effective control of weeds, pests & diseases and the more economical utilisation of soil fertility. For example, leguminous crops like pulses are grown alternately with wheat, barley or mustard.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      eeshan 5 years ago

      nice website

    • billips profile image

      billips 5 years ago from Central Texas

      I enjoyed this article very much - it's always nice to learn something new - well written -B.

    • profile image

      Mugdha Jain 5 years ago

      Thank You for the information.it helped me very much in my school project.

    • profile image

      anam 5 years ago

      its nice to see in india so much of agriculture in india

    • profile image

      sree 5 years ago

      it is good as a river and so clear as its water

    • profile image

      malongding engti 5 years ago

      great.................i got what i need in this page....

    • profile image

      teo 5 years ago

      this site is great very helps

    • profile image

      Fitsum M. 5 years ago

      It was nice i got what i need.

    • profile image

      Yagini Malhotra 5 years ago

      This info was really helpful...... Never knew soo many different types of farms were grown in India...... Where did you get all this info from????...... Next time learn to site your sources!!!!!

    • profile image

      vishakha 5 years ago

      this site has very great info

      i got what i want

    • profile image

      Aditi Singh 5 years ago

      ohhh i willl be soo gratefull to this site ... tommorow is my project and i got what i wanted soooo gratefull thanking u .......

    • profile image

      saloni tater 5 years ago

      wow,this site is so useful.i was trying for half an hour but now from this site i get my answer..now i can make my project

    • profile image

      heenaparmar 5 years ago

      try to put some more but the rmaning is useful well done.

    • profile image

      sriprad 5 years ago

      this is the best page in indian agriculture

    • profile image

      kartavya 5 years ago

      good info

    • profile image

      nitish 5 years ago

      it is really nice

    • profile image

      stuti 5 years ago

      so clearly verified !!!!!!!!!

    • profile image

      yogesh 5 years ago

      nice

    • profile image

      naveen kumar 5 years ago

      very useful to slow and new cultivators

    • profile image

      xyz 5 years ago

      thanks man; I got what I wanted:

    • profile image

      danya 5 years ago

      clearlyyyyyy & lovely infrmation!!!!!!!!!!!!! guuddddddd

    • profile image

      MANSI 5 years ago

      great information ..... this is exactly what one needs ,the information is so clear and easy to read.

    • profile image

      govind singh rathore 5 years ago

      This was the best article for my project i looking from so many days

    • profile image

      Abhinav (cps)chennai 5 years ago

      i got each and every thing from it

    • profile image

      ravindra 5 years ago

      this is sufficient information to get idea of cropping pattern in india.... thank u....

    • profile image

      raj 5 years ago

      i am very lucky

    • profile image

      janvi 5 years ago

      i like this page

    • profile image

      aashi 5 years ago

      thankyou for this wonderful site....

    • profile image

      monika 4 years ago

      a wonderful site and sufficient information now i get the idea of cropping pattern

    • profile image

      priyanka salvi 4 years ago

      This is very nice i got all information from this site . amaziiiiiiiiiiiiig.

    • profile image

      anjana 4 years ago

      so goood i got all the information i need

    • profile image

      kritika 4 years ago

      i like it

    • profile image

      nakhash 4 years ago

      thankyou for the information ,for my science seminar

    • profile image

      gara preethi sharon 4 years ago

      thankxx for the information

    • profile image

      manisha puja 4 years ago

      very good

    • profile image

      carta 4 years ago

      nice !!!! BUT

      India even practices intensive farming .

    • profile image

      simran 4 years ago

      i like it very much because through this we can get information

    • profile image

      yukta 4 years ago

      it is very good, and i got all the information what i need.

    • profile image

      sahana 4 years ago

      very nice, i got all the information what i need

    • profile image

      kritica 4 years ago

      very good info but not got that i want

    • profile image

      tanvi kulkarni 4 years ago

      very good information , it is helping me in studies

    • profile image

      Rojin 4 years ago

      ya,It is very good

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 4 years ago from Houston, Texas

      It is interesting to know about the different types of farming in India. Similar things are done world wide all depending upon what resources are available (available water + conditions of soil) and climate together with available manpower and machinery in which to work the land. Voted up.

    • dilipchandra12 profile image
      Author

      Dilip Chandra 4 years ago from India

      Thank you Peggy W for reading the hub and commenting.

    • profile image

      SUNIT SEBASTIAN 4 years ago

      thank u vary much now i can cut copy past

    • profile image

      archana 4 years ago

      i like it too much . it is very helpful for students

    • profile image

      Ankitha Kapur 4 years ago

      THANKS! I got the required information from this page for my SCIENCE project!

    • profile image

      sara 4 years ago

      good info. thank u.......

    • profile image

      prathiba 4 years ago

      this article was nice and very useful for my project

    • profile image

      prerna 4 years ago

      i like this page

    • profile image

      Aditya 4 years ago

      thanxxxx it was very helpful

    • profile image

      HARDIK 4 years ago

      NICE PAGE..

    • profile image

      lemon 4 years ago

      this article was really helpful

    • profile image

      Manu 3 years ago

      This is very nice. I got all the information what I need

    • profile image

      vanishree 3 years ago

      it is very useful

    • profile image

      Pooja venkatesan 3 years ago

      Its good It helped me to do my geography project

    • profile image

      Marco De Luca 3 years ago

      Found this website very useful

    • profile image

      gth 3 years ago

      it was helpful in my school projject

    • profile image

      Abdul Malik 3 years ago

      superb

    • profile image

      sharmela 3 years ago

      it is very useful for us student

    • profile image

      sachin 3 years ago

      nice page i am like most article of this page

    • profile image

      Anjana 3 years ago

      i got a help from this to do my social project!!.........

    • profile image

      prajwal rs 3 years ago

      superb!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! i got what i needed in this wonderful page

    • profile image

      Harsh 3 years ago

      Nice article and the information that helped me a lot......

    • profile image

      srikanth 3 years ago

      thank you for your valuable information

    • profile image

      Rupesh pawar 3 years ago

      Woo, this suit is very helpful to us. I spend my more time for searching an answer but I finally got my answer this situ.

    • profile image

      Rohan singh 2 years ago

      It helped me a lot its nice

    • profile image

      nardeep 2 years ago

      excellent info

    • profile image

      pawan mehta 2 years ago

      Very useful...nice article.

    • profile image

      Shreeya 2 years ago

      A great help in doing my Geo project.Thank u.

    • profile image

      Green lover 2 years ago

      what I wanted to share is it help me to learn more and more on my studies plus helping me to direct even to other friends.who did not turn up on this page.

    • profile image

      yashaswini 2 years ago

      good information

    • profile image

      akansha 2 years ago

      clear information

    • profile image

      vishal 2 years ago

      very very axcilent

    • profile image

      darshan.v.gowda 2 years ago

      Very useful for all the kids or adults

    • profile image

      archana bala 2 years ago

      very helpful for me

    • profile image

      archana bala 2 years ago

      very helpful for me

    • profile image

      sumaiya 22 months ago

      very help full for me and to my sisters

    • profile image

      uday 21 months ago

      very useful to my younger brother

    • profile image

      rohini d zade 20 months ago

      very very good information

    • profile image

      Annanya 20 months ago

      thanks it is really helpful

    • profile image

      nitika 5 weeks ago

      good

    • profile image

      Rohan sharma 5 weeks ago

      Thanxxxxx it is very beneficial for me to complete my project

    Click to Rate This Article