Wheat belongs to the kingdom of plants to the family of Poaceae. It originated near the Mediterranean region and is now a major cereal grain cultivated worldwide. Wheat grain cultivation claims the largest area or land for any crop. Wheat has a lot of vegetable protein nutrients and fiber. Wheat is being cultivated for at least twelve thousand years and is good for human health acting as a normal resistance for a lot of diseases. Over the centuries, wheat grass cultivation and domestication resulted i larger grains. Constant adoption of new techniques for wheat cultivation has created highly domesticated varieties of wheat. Wheat cultivation spread from Levant region to Turkey, Syria, Greece, Cyprus and India around eight thousand years ago. It reached other European countries and China around five to six thousand years ago. Wheat sometimes are named by farmers according to the season in which they are grown like winter or spring wheat. Naming of wheat also depends on their protein content and also on the quality of gluten present in the wheat.
Soil preparation, seed quality, crop rotation, fertilizers, and harvesting techniques determine the yield and the quality of wheat crop. Seed drills and better ploughing techniques improved productivity over the years. Mechanism of wheat farms has lead to increased productivity of wheat all over the world. Wheat species like Einkorn have two sets of chromosomes. Emmer wheat has four sets of chromosomes. Bread wheat have six sets of chromosomes. These mutant gene variations in the different cultivars of wheat have important effect on crop yields. In a lot of developed and developing countries genes are carefully selected and altered to improve yield and traits of the crop. Wheat flowers self pollinates and commercial wheat growers use hybridizing agents. Genetic information is extensively being researched and as new information gets revealed it is employed to improve crop yield. Different varieties of wheat are inter pollinated and customized for local cultivation. Mendelian genetics is used for creating hybrid wheat plantations which increases crop yield, quality, pest resistance and biotic resistance for wheat. A number of diseases like eyespot, powdery mildew, leaf rust and spot blotch can destroy the crop. Modern wheat has more amount of gluten which is responsible for the elasticity to dough. To obtain the wheat grain techniques like threshing, milling and pounding are employed on the wheat grass. Wheat grain comes in different colors like red, white or amber and they also help in naming or grading of organic compound present in the grain. Hundred grams of wheat has a nutritional value of three hundred twenty seven kilo calories of energy. Popular wheat varieties are Bread wheat, Tricticum spelta, Triticum durum, Triticum khrosen, hard red spring wheat, soft white wheat and hard white wheat. Wheat is very nutritious for consumption. It contains essential vitamins, minerals, fibers, carbohydrates and protein. Wheat is the largest and one of the most essential trading commodities in the world. Wheat is an agronomic adaptable crop which makes it suitable for cultivation anywhere on the planet under diverse conditions.
Wheat is the staple food for billions of people in the world. It is used in cereals, cakes, doughnuts, pizza, biscuits and other major foods. Consuming wheat lowers the risk of diseases. However in rare cases taking wheat can cause celiac diseases, certain allergies, skin blisters and few minor diseases. The diseases and allergic symptoms due to what are rare in nature. The abundant varieties of wheat allow buyers and cultivators to decide which is best suited for their needs. Wheat is popular among cultivators as it is a cash crop and different varieties of foods that can be prepared from wheat keeps its demand high. China and India are major producers of wheat in the world. Wheat’s yield grew multi fold in nineteen sixties after advancement in technology. Storage and germination for seeds have been improved using technology and this has also resulted in increased output of the crop. Ireland has the best yield per hectare in the world for wheat. North American countries and European countries are the largest exporters of wheat worldwide. Clay loam soil with moderate water holding capacity or heavy fertile soils with good drainage are good to grow wheat. Wheat plants take four months to be ready for cultivation. Wheat seeds can grow in temperatures from three degrees Celsius to thirty five degrees Celsius. Temperate climate is good for growing wheat. Seeds are sown during winter months. Good knowledge about wheat cultivation increases crop yield as wheat grows in specific phases and in every phase appropriate fertilizer or any specific requirement can be fulfilled. Wheat crop can be destroyed by viruses and bacteria which cause diseases during plant growth. Insecticides, good plant breeding and management reduce the risk of plant diseases. Larvae of moths and butterfly feed on wheat crop along with birds and rodents. So they regularly monitor the crop and right steps are taken to ensure better output.