ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Art of Making Red Wine

Updated on May 16, 2017

The art of wine making

Red wines production

Living in a country with great wine making traditions, I can say that the winemaking materials for the production of powerful red wines are thoroughly selected from the best natural climatic zones.

There are some important steps of the process of wine making:

The first step of winemaking is The grapes

The grapes, picked by hand, are delivered to the facility in plastic crates and are subject to lab tests in order to determine the content of sugar and titratable acids, as well as the proportion of damaged or crushed grapes. Then the grapes are delivered to the following processing stage by a conveyor belt, where the quality of the grapes is double checked. As a result the dried and spoiled grapes are identified and sieved out.

The second step of winemaking is Crushing, stemming, sulfitization

In the wine making practice grape crushing takes place at the same time as stemming. The roll crushers used at the facility ensure a high quality of crushing and a moderate rubbing of the grape peel. The pulp which results from the process is treated by fermentation agents, sulfitized at 50-75 mg SO2/kg of processed grapes, and then loaded into tanks to ferment. When the pulp is treated by fermenting agents, this improves the extraction of phenolic, coloring and aromatic substances from the grape peel and facilitates pressing.

The third step of winemaking is Must (juice) and pulp fermentation

In order to have the right amount of phenolic substances extracted from the grape peel, a process known as must and pulp fermentation is used. This process takes place with the help of selected yeasts (different kinds for different varieties of grapes). The fermentation of the must with a floating pulp cap in oak tanks, with controlled stirring, ensures a yield of red wines with pronounced variety characteristics. The particularity of this method consists in the natural contact between the must and the pulp, which enriches the wine with coloring, phenolic, extractive and aromatic substances contained in the peel.

The fourth step of winemaking is Separation of must from pulp

After the must acquires the desired color, tartness and extractive substances, it is placed on a drainer and then pressed. To produce high-quality red wines the first fraction (no more than 60 dal of one ton of grapes) and self-drained must are used.

The fifth step of winemaking is Final fermentation, separation from sediment

The self-drained must and the first fraction are mixed in a specific proportion and left to finish fermentation until residual sugar has fermented completely. Then the tanks are filled up with primary wine in order to empty the tanks of all air. Two weeks later, when the large particles form a sediment, the clear part of the primary wine is separated—this process is called separation from sediment.

The sixth step of winemaking is Apple-lactic acid fermentation

When the alcohol fermentation finishes, the apple-lactic acid fermentation takes place, which is one of the most important operations that ensures the high quality of the wines. This process takes place under a strict technochemical and biological supervision and stops when apple acid has fully transformed into lactic acid. This transformation takes place in wine under the influence of lactoacid bacteria cultures, which render the wine soft and fruity.

The seventh step of winemaking is Clarification

Clarification is done by using a variety of substances which make the suspended particles sediment to the bottom of the vessel. The usual substances applied are gelatin, tannin, fish glue, egg white, casein, bentonite. When one of these substances is added to the wine in an appropriate amount, the wine develops flakes, which then gradually—over several days—fall to the bottom of the tank drawing down the dregs. In order to determine exactly what substance and in what amount should be used for wine clarification, several test clarifications are made first in the lab.

A bird nest found while gathering the grapes
A bird nest found while gathering the grapes

The eight step of winemaking is Maturation in oak barrels

By tradition, the maturation of the best red wines should take place in oak 225-liter barrels. In such smaller barrels the young wine develops faster and better than in large tanks. The temperature in the cellar is kept at 12-16 °С and humidity at 85%. The main advantage of oak barrels is that they transfer to the wine the oak’s unique vanilla aroma, which combines perfectly well with the aroma of the grapes. This method of maturation is necessary in order to allow quality red wines to best develop their characteristic organoleptic qualities.

The ninth step of winemaking is Cold treatment

After maturation, the wines are subject to cold—they are kept in refrigerators for 4-5 days at temperatures from -3 to -5 °С. Then the wines are filtered, at the same temperature, and left to rest.

The tenth step of winemaking is Sterile bottling

The most effective physical method of biological stabilization of wines is the cold sterile bottling. This bottling method is possible only when no microflora whatsoever is present in the wine, bottles, corks, equipment and air of the bottling facility. Another important aspect is the microbiological supervision of wines and potential infection sources—equipment, bottles, corks, etc. Cold sterile bottling preserves the full organoleptic qualities of the wine, sought by winemakers.

The eleventh step of winemaking Bottle maturation

After bottling, the wine is subject to additional maturation in bottles—a period when the wine rests and acquires its unique, delicate bouquet, soft and harmonious taste, which represent the finale of the wine’s transformation into a work of art. It is at this stage that the wine acquires a spirit and develops the qualities given to it by the winemaker.

The twelfth step of winemaking Pre-sale packaging

After bottle maturation, a corporate label, printed on special paper, is applied to the bottle, the neck is wrapped in a high-quality polylaminate decorative cap, and finally the bottle is wrapped in fine paper and packaged into a special cardboard box.

So, as we can see red winemaking is a long process, but we know that the result deserve all those efforts. A good wine is a wonderful art.

HowTo: Taste Red Wine


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Money Glitch, Thank You very much! Really love this amazing family!

    • Money Glitch profile image

      Money Glitch 

      8 years ago from Texas

      Hhhhmmmm, I love wine, thanks for sharing the process of making it and the vid of how to properly taste the wine. Congrats on being nominated to the HubNugget Wannabe, good luck to you! :)

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Shzwellyn, Thank You for your kind words. Really, means a lot. I didn't expected the readers would appreciate it so high.

    • shazwellyn profile image


      8 years ago from Great Britain

      Oh Nikipa... lovely hub and well written... Unfortuately I cant drink red wine.. gives me migraine.. shame cos when I have had it, Ive loved it x

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Thank You Tony! I am really glad you liked it!

    • tonymac04 profile image

      Tony McGregor 

      8 years ago from South Africa

      A fascinating read and well researched and written. Thanks for it. In South Africa we have some fine wines, especially reds.

      Love and peace


    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Thank You Pamela! Means a lot!

    • Pamela99 profile image

      Pamela Oglesby 

      8 years ago from Sunny Florida

      Great hub. It was very interesting.

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Thank You For Everything!!! It's Great To Be Here!

    • ripplemaker profile image

      Michelle Simtoco 

      8 years ago from Cebu, Philippines

      Nikipa, one day I would love to see how wines are made. I will include that in my bucket list :) Here's a toast to wish you the best of luck in your Hubnugget Nomination. Woohoo!

      The link to the Hubnuggets lair: Keep promoting your hub to your family and friends. Non hubbers can vote too. :)

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Thank you so much for all your nice comments and words of encouragment!

    • Herald Daily profile image

      Herald Daily 

      8 years ago from A Beach Online

      Very interesting. I love red wine and really appreciate an oaky taste. Now, I know how it gets there, thanks.

      Best of luck with your HubNugget nomination!

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Thank you for the nice comment.

    • alexandriaruthk profile image


      8 years ago from US

      wow, good one, Congrats HUBNUGGETS!

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Red wine is my favorite as well!

      TattoGuy, thank You for your appreciation!

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      I love my red wine, great hub, really enjoyed it !

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Sherbet, I don't live with my parents for some years already but when time comes to gather the greapes, my sisters and I always go there to help.

      It's a very happy event in our family from many points of view but probably the most important it's another nice reason to share some time together!

      Thank you stopping by and for your interest!

    • Sherbet Penny profile image

      Sherbet Penny 

      8 years ago from Galway, Ireland.

      Wow I'm very jealous, you live on a vineyard, ah! I know it's hard work but the end product is totally worth it, I love wine, and could only imagine or dream about making your own, then drinking it yum.

    • nikipa profile imageAUTHOR


      8 years ago from Eastern Europe

      Since my childhood I help my parents with their vineyard. Usually I gather the grapes. It's something we really enjoy. So, I have Idea of the whole process.

      Sherbet, Thank you for stopping by and for your nice comment!

    • Sherbet Penny profile image

      Sherbet Penny 

      8 years ago from Galway, Ireland.

      I love the whole process of wine making, something very poetic about it, and I would love to work on a vineyard. Great hub.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)